Next Article in Journal
A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity
Next Article in Special Issue
The Dinoflagellate Toxin 20-Methyl Spirolide-G Potently Blocks Skeletal Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
Previous Article in Journal
Antifungal and Antiaflatoxigenic Methylenedioxy-Containing Compounds and Piperine-Like Synthetic Compounds
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cyanobacterial Serine Protease Inhibitors Aeruginosin 828A and Cyanopeptolin 1020 in Human Hepatoma Cell Line Huh7 and Effects in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(8), 238; doi:10.3390/toxins8080238

Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks

1
Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA
2
Leonard and Jayne Abess Center for Ecosystem Science and Policy, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA
3
Department of Neurology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
4
Department of Chemistry, 3247 University Way, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
5
Biodiversity Research Institute, 276 Canco Road, Portland, ME 04103, USA
6
Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Botana
Received: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1177 KB, uploaded 16 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-N-methylamino-l-alanine; conservation; cyanobacteria; total mercury; methylmercury; neurodegenerative disease; neurotoxin; sharks β-N-methylamino-l-alanine; conservation; cyanobacteria; total mercury; methylmercury; neurodegenerative disease; neurotoxin; sharks
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hammerschlag, N.; Davis, D.A.; Mondo, K.; Seely, M.S.; Murch, S.J.; Glover, W.B.; Divoll, T.; Evers, D.C.; Mash, D.C. Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks. Toxins 2016, 8, 238.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top