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Toxins 2016, 8(8), 236; doi:10.3390/toxins8080236

Cellular Effects of Pyocyanin, a Secreted Virulence Factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Queensland 4222, Australia
School of Pharmacy, Griffith University, Queensland 4222, Australia
Centre for Urology Research, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Queensland 4226, Australia
School of Medical Science, Griffith University, Queensland 4222, Australia
Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Queensland 4222, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vernon L. Tesh
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 3 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [602 KB, uploaded 12 August 2016]   |  


Pyocyanin has recently emerged as an important virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The redox-active tricyclic zwitterion has been shown to have a number of potential effects on various organ systems in vitro, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, urological, and central nervous systems. It has been shown that a large number of the effects to these systems are via the formation of reactive oxygen species. The limitations of studies are, to date, focused on the localized effect of the release of pyocyanin (PCN). It has been postulated that, given its chemical properties, PCN is able to readily cross biological membranes, however studies have yet to be undertaken to evaluate this effect. This review highlights the possible manifestations of PCN exposure; however, most studies to date are in vitro. Further high quality in vivo studies are needed to fully assess the physiological manifestations of PCN exposure on the various body systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; oxidative stress; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; pyocyanin; virulence factor inflammation; oxidative stress; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; pyocyanin; virulence factor

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hall, S.; McDermott, C.; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S.; McFarland, A.J.; Forbes, A.; Perkins, A.V.; Davey, A.K.; Chess-Williams, R.; Kiefel, M.J.; Arora, D.; Grant, G.D. Cellular Effects of Pyocyanin, a Secreted Virulence Factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Toxins 2016, 8, 236.

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