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Toxins 2016, 8(7), 210; doi:10.3390/toxins8070210

Canopy Venom: Proteomic Comparison among New World Arboreal Pit-Viper Venoms

1
Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
2
Department of Earth and Biological Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
3
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Biomedical Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
4
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
5
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, 75 Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
6
Department of Physiology, Biomedical Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
7
Aquatic Animal Health, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 Australia
8
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
9
HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, ICCBS, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ronald A. Jenner
Received: 22 August 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 8 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Evolution of Venom Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2305 KB, uploaded 8 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis) were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of complex venom cocktails may facilitate future biodiscoveries. View Full-Text
Keywords: venom; evolution; pit-viper; enzyme venom; evolution; pit-viper; enzyme
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Debono, J.; Cochran, C.; Kuruppu, S.; Nouwens, A.; Rajapakse, N.W.; Kawasaki, M.; Wood, K.; Dobson, J.; Baumann, K.; Jouiaei, M.; Jackson, T.N.W.; Koludarov, I.; Low, D.; Ali, S.A.; Smith, A.I.; Barnes, A.; Fry, B.G. Canopy Venom: Proteomic Comparison among New World Arboreal Pit-Viper Venoms. Toxins 2016, 8, 210.

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