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Toxins 2016, 8(6), 187; doi:10.3390/toxins8060187

The Immunomodulator VacA Promotes Immune Tolerance and Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection through Its Activities on T-Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells

Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
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Academic Editor: Timothy L. Cover
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 7 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuolating Toxin)
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Abstract

VacA is a pore-forming toxin that has long been known to induce vacuolization in gastric epithelial cells and to be linked to gastric disorders caused by H. pylori infection. Its role as a major colonization and persistence determinant of H. pylori is less well-understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various target cell types of VacA and its mechanism of action; specifically, we focus on the evidence showing that VacA targets myeloid cells and T-cells to directly and indirectly prevent H. pylori-specific T-cell responses and immune control of the infection. In particular, the ability of VacA-proficient H. pylori to skew T-cell responses towards regulatory T-cells and the effects of Tregs on H. pylori chronicity are highlighted. The by-stander effects of VacA-driven immunomodulation on extragastric diseases are discussed as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: persistent infection; myeloid cells; professional antigen-presenting cells; T-cell priming; effector T-cells; regulatory T-cells; immune tolerance persistent infection; myeloid cells; professional antigen-presenting cells; T-cell priming; effector T-cells; regulatory T-cells; immune tolerance
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Djekic, A.; Müller, A. The Immunomodulator VacA Promotes Immune Tolerance and Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection through Its Activities on T-Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells. Toxins 2016, 8, 187.

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