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Toxins 2016, 8(6), 170; doi:10.3390/toxins8060170

A Systematic Investigation into the Environmental Fate of Microcystins and The Potential Risk: Study in Lake Taihu

1
Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
2
Center for Eco-Environmental Research, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
5
Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research (SDC), Beijing 100190, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miquel Lürling
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 21 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2107 KB, uploaded 2 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

A systematic investigation was conducted in Lake Taihu in autumn of 2013 and 2014, in order to understand the environmental fate of microcystins (MCs) and evaluate the health risk from MCs. Samples of water, algal cells, macrophytes, shrimps and fish were taken to detect MCs by HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. Widespread MC contamination in water, algal cells, macrophytes, shrimps and fish was found in Lake Taihu. The ubiquitous presence of MCs in water, algal cells and biota was found in 100% of samples. MC accumulation was in the order of primary producer > tertiary consumer > secondary consumer > primary consumer. The highest levels of MCs in macrophytes, shrimps and fish tissue were found in Potamogeton maackianus, Exopalaemon modestus, and Hyporhamphus intermedius, respectively. The MCs level in shrimps and the tissues of three fish species, Neosalanx tangkahkeii taihuensis, Coilia ectenes and silver carp, was closely linked to their dietary exposure. Ceratophyllum demersum L. was an ideal plant for introduction into lakes to protect against Microcystis blooms and MCs, due to its ability to absorb nutrients, accumulate large amounts of MCs and tolerate these toxins compared to other macrophytes. The average daily intakes (ADIs) of MCs for Exopalaemon modestus and three fish species, Coilia ectenes, Hyporhamphus intermedius and Carassius carassius, were all above the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) set by the World Health Organization (WHO), implying there existed potential threats to human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystins; bioaccumulation; environment fate; health risk; Lake Taihu microcystins; bioaccumulation; environment fate; health risk; Lake Taihu
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jia, J.; Chen, Q.; Lauridsen, T.L. A Systematic Investigation into the Environmental Fate of Microcystins and The Potential Risk: Study in Lake Taihu. Toxins 2016, 8, 170.

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