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Toxins 2016, 8(5), 136; doi:10.3390/toxins8050136

Toxin and Growth Responses of the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum to Varying Temperature and Salinity

1
Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratoire Environnement Ressources du Languedoc-Roussillon, Centre for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), CS30171 Sète Cedex 03 34200, France
2
Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratoire Environnement Ressources de Bretagne Occidentale, Place de la Croix, Concarneau 29900, France
3
Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratoire Phycotoxines (DYNECO/PHYC), Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, BP 21105 Nantes Cedex 3 44311, France
4
Center for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), Université de Montpellier (UM), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Ifremer, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Place E. Bataillon, CC93, Montpellier Cedex 5 34095, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis M. Botana
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 17 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater medium. We tested the effect of temperature and salinity on growth, pinnatoxin-G production and chlorophyll a levels of this dinoflagellate. These factors were tested in combinations of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and five salinities (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) at an irradiance of 100 µmol photon m−2 s−1. V. rugosum can grow at temperatures and salinities ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C and 20 to 40, respectively. The optimal combination for growth (0.39 ± 0.11 d−1) was a temperature of 25 °C and a salinity of 40. Results suggest that V. rugosum is euryhaline and thermophile which could explain why this dinoflagellate develops in situ only from June to September. V. rugosum growth rate and pinnatoxin-G production were highest at temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 °C. This suggests that the dinoflagellate may give rise to extensive blooms in the coming decades caused by the climate change-related increases in temperature expected in the Mediterranean coasts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vulcanodinium rugosum; Mediterranean Ingril Lagoon; toxin production; growth conditions; temperature; salinity Vulcanodinium rugosum; Mediterranean Ingril Lagoon; toxin production; growth conditions; temperature; salinity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Abadie, E.; Muguet, A.; Berteaux, T.; Chomérat, N.; Hess, P.; Roque D’OrbCastel, E.; Masseret, E.; Laabir, M. Toxin and Growth Responses of the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum to Varying Temperature and Salinity. Toxins 2016, 8, 136.

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