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Toxins 2016, 8(4), 86; doi:10.3390/toxins8040086

Neutralization of the Principal Toxins from the Venoms of Thai Naja kaouthia and Malaysian Hydrophis schistosus: Insights into Toxin-Specific Neutralization by Two Different Antivenoms

1
Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicholas Casewell
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 6 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 26 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Antivenom neutralization against cobra venoms is generally low in potency, presumably due to poor toxin-specific immunoreactivity. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of two elapid antivenoms to neutralize the principal toxins purified from the venoms of the Thai monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia, Nk-T) and the Malaysian beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, Hs-M). In mice, N. kaouthia Monovalent Antivenom (NKMAV) neutralization against Nk-T long neurotoxin (LNTX) and cytotoxin was moderate (potency of 2.89–6.44 mg toxin/g antivenom protein) but poor against the short neurotoxin (SNTX) (1.33 mg/g). Its cross-neutralization against Hs-M LNTX of Hs-M is compatible (0.18 mg/g) but much weaker against Hs-M SNTX (0.22 mg/g). Using CSL (Seqirus Limited) Sea Snake Antivenom (SSAV), we observed consistently weak neutralization of antivenom against SNTX of both species, suggesting that this is the limiting factor on the potency of antivenom neutralization against venoms containing SNTX. Nevertheless, SSAV outperformed NKMAV in neutralizing SNTXs of both species (0.61–2.49 mg/g). The superior efficacy of SSAV against SNTX is probably partly attributable to the high abundance of SNTX in sea snake venom used as immunogen in SSAV production. The findings indicate that improving the potency of cobra antivenom may be possible with a proper immunogen formulation that seeks to overcome the limitation on SNTX immunoreactivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Naja kaouthia monovalent antivenom; sea snake antivenom; toxin-specific neutralization; antivenom potency; toxin purification Naja kaouthia monovalent antivenom; sea snake antivenom; toxin-specific neutralization; antivenom potency; toxin purification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, K.Y.; Tan, C.H.; Fung, S.Y.; Tan, N.H. Neutralization of the Principal Toxins from the Venoms of Thai Naja kaouthia and Malaysian Hydrophis schistosus: Insights into Toxin-Specific Neutralization by Two Different Antivenoms. Toxins 2016, 8, 86.

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