Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi, Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulatory Mechanisms
AbstractOchratoxin A (OTA), mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillum species, is one of the most important mycotoxin contaminants in agricultural products. It is detrimental to human health because of its nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and immunosuppression. OTA structurally consists of adihydrocoumarin moiety linked with l-phenylalanine via an amide bond. OTA biosynthesis has been putatively hypothesized, although several contradictions exist on some processes of the biosynthetic pathway. We discuss recent information on molecular studies of OTA biosynthesis despite insufficient genetic background in detail. Accordingly, genetic regulation has also been explored with regard to the interaction between the regulators and the environmental factors. In this review, we focus on three aspects of OTA: OTA-producing strains, OTA biosynthetic pathway and the regulation mechanisms of OTA production. This can pave the way to assist in protecting food and feed from OTA contamination by understanding OTA biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanisms. View Full-Text
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Wang, Y.; Wang, L.; Liu, F.; Wang, Q.; Selvaraj, J.N.; Xing, F.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, Y. Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi, Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulatory Mechanisms. Toxins 2016, 8, 83.
Wang Y, Wang L, Liu F, Wang Q, Selvaraj JN, Xing F, Zhao Y, Liu Y. Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi, Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulatory Mechanisms. Toxins. 2016; 8(3):83.Chicago/Turabian Style
Wang, Yan; Wang, Liuqing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Qi; Selvaraj, Jonathan N.; Xing, Fuguo; Zhao, Yueju; Liu, Yang. 2016. "Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi, Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulatory Mechanisms." Toxins 8, no. 3: 83.