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Toxins 2016, 8(3), 83; doi:10.3390/toxins8030083

Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi, Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulatory Mechanisms

1
Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1 Nongda South Road, Xibeiwang Town, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
2
Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, 1 Nongda South Road, Xibeiwang Town, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard A. Manderville
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Ochratoxins-Collection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [272 KB, uploaded 21 March 2016]

Abstract

Ochratoxin A (OTA), mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillum species, is one of the most important mycotoxin contaminants in agricultural products. It is detrimental to human health because of its nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and immunosuppression. OTA structurally consists of adihydrocoumarin moiety linked with l-phenylalanine via an amide bond. OTA biosynthesis has been putatively hypothesized, although several contradictions exist on some processes of the biosynthetic pathway. We discuss recent information on molecular studies of OTA biosynthesis despite insufficient genetic background in detail. Accordingly, genetic regulation has also been explored with regard to the interaction between the regulators and the environmental factors. In this review, we focus on three aspects of OTA: OTA-producing strains, OTA biosynthetic pathway and the regulation mechanisms of OTA production. This can pave the way to assist in protecting food and feed from OTA contamination by understanding OTA biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; producing fungi; biosynthetic pathway; regulatory mechanisms ochratoxin A; producing fungi; biosynthetic pathway; regulatory mechanisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, Y.; Wang, L.; Liu, F.; Wang, Q.; Selvaraj, J.N.; Xing, F.; Zhao, Y.; Liu, Y. Ochratoxin A Producing Fungi, Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulatory Mechanisms. Toxins 2016, 8, 83.

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