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Toxins 2016, 8(3), 57; doi:10.3390/toxins8030057

Aflatoxin M1 in Cow’s Milk: Method Validation for Milk Sampled in Northern Italy

1
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, via Bologna 148, Turin 10154, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Largo Braccini, 2, Grugliasco 10095, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michelangelo Pascale and Maria C. DeRosa
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 10 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus. In dairy cows, ingested AFB1 is metabolized into carcinogenic AFM1 which is eliminated through milk, thus posing a risk for consumer health. Here we describe the set, validation, and application of screening (ELISA) and confirmatory (HPLC) tests carried out on milk samples collected through official control of mycotoxin levels in northern Italy over a three-year period (2012–2014). The limit of detection (LOD) was set at 5 ppt and 2 ppt for ELISA and HPLC, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 ppt for confirmatory HPLC. A total of 1668 milk samples were analyzed: ELISA identified 36 (2.2%) positive milk samples that were subsequently confirmed by HPLC. The level of AFM1 in the positive samples ranged between 18 ± 2 and 208 ± 27 ppt. Of the total samples, only eight (0.5%) were found non-compliant with the EU regulatory limit (50 ppt; range 74 ± 10 to 208 ± 27 ppt). Use of ELISA and HPLC tests in series allows for high-volume analysis of samples, thus saving time and money while guaranteeing high analytical precision and accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin M1; milk; food safety aflatoxin M1; milk; food safety
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bellio, A.; Bianchi, D.M.; Gramaglia, M.; Loria, A.; Nucera, D.; Gallina, S.; Gili, M.; Decastelli, L. Aflatoxin M1 in Cow’s Milk: Method Validation for Milk Sampled in Northern Italy. Toxins 2016, 8, 57.

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