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Toxins 2016, 8(2), 44; doi:10.3390/toxins8020044

An Insight into the Triabin Protein Family of American Hematophagous Reduviids: Functional, Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis

Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Apartado Postal 510-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 61500, Mexico
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Academic Editor: Glenn F. King
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 24 December 2015 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Venoms)
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Abstract

A transcriptomic analysis of the saliva of T. pallidipennis together with a short proteomic analysis were carried out to reveal novel primary structures of the lipocalin/triabin protein families in this reduviid. Although triabins share some structural characteristics to lipocalins and they are classified as in the calcyn/lipocalin superfamily, triabins differ from lipocalins in the direction of β-strands in the general conformation of the β-barrel. The triabin protein family encompasses a wide variety of proteins, which disrupt the hemostasis of warm-blooded animals. Likewise, the function of proteins classified as triabins includes proteins that are carriers of small molecules, protease inhibitors, binders of specific cell-surface receptors as well as proteins that form complexes with other macromolecules. For example, triabin and pallidipin from the saliva of T. pallidipennis are thrombin and platelet aggregation inhibitors, respectively; triplatin from T. infestans binds to thromboxane A2; and nitrophorin from Rhodnius prolixus carries nitric oxide. Therefore, based on 42 new transcriptome sequences of triabins from the salivary glands of T. pallidipennis reported at present, and on triabin sequences of other American hematophagous reduviids already reported in the literature, subfamilies of triabins were proposed following phylogenetic analyses and functional characterization of triabin members. Eight subfamilies of proteins were recognized with known functions, which were the nitrophorin and amine binding proteins, Rhodnius prolixus aggregation inhibitor, triafestin, triatin, dipetalodipin and pallidipin, triplatin and infestilin, dimiconin and triabin, and procalin subfamilies. Interestingly, 70% of the analyzed sequences came from these eight subfamilies because there was no biological function associated with them, implying the existence of a vast number of proteins with potential novel biological activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: triabin; antihemostatic proteins; coagulation; platelet aggregation; saliva; Triatominaes triabin; antihemostatic proteins; coagulation; platelet aggregation; saliva; Triatominaes
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Hernández-Vargas, M.J.; Santibáñez-López, C.E.; Corzo, G. An Insight into the Triabin Protein Family of American Hematophagous Reduviids: Functional, Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis. Toxins 2016, 8, 44.

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