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Toxins 2016, 8(12), 364; doi:10.3390/toxins8120364

Metabolism of HT-2 Toxin and T-2 Toxin in Oats

1
Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Str. 20, Tulln 3430, Austria
2
Institute for Biotechnology in Plant Production, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Str. 20, Tulln 3430, Austria
3
Biotechnological Processes Campus-Tulln, University of Applied Sciences, Wr. Neustadt, Konrad-Lorenz-Str. 10, Tulln 3430, Austria
4
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Mycotoxin Metabolism, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Str. 20, Tulln 3430, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aldo Laganà
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue LC-MS/MS Method for Mycotoxin Analysis)
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Abstract

The Fusarium mycotoxins HT-2 toxin (HT2) and T-2 toxin (T2) are frequent contaminants in oats. These toxins, but also their plant metabolites, may contribute to toxicological effects. This work describes the use of 13C-assisted liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry for the first comprehensive study on the biotransformation of HT2 and T2 in oats. Using this approach, 16 HT2 and 17 T2 metabolites were annotated including novel glycosylated and hydroxylated forms of the toxins, hydrolysis products, and conjugates with acetic acid, putative malic acid, malonic acid, and ferulic acid. Further targeted quantitative analysis was performed to study toxin metabolism over time, as well as toxin and conjugate mobility within non-treated plant tissues. As a result, HT2-3-O-β-d-glucoside was identified as the major detoxification product of both parent toxins, which was rapidly formed (to an extent of 74% in HT2-treated and 48% in T2-treated oats within one day after treatment) and further metabolised. Mobility of the parent toxins appeared to be negligible, while HT2-3-O-β-d-glucoside was partly transported (up to approximately 4%) through panicle side branches and stem. Our findings demonstrate that the presented combination of untargeted and targeted analysis is well suited for the comprehensive elucidation of mycotoxin metabolism in plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry; stable isotopic labelling; type A trichothecenes; masked mycotoxins; xenobiotics; cereals metabolomics; liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry; stable isotopic labelling; type A trichothecenes; masked mycotoxins; xenobiotics; cereals
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Meng-Reiterer, J.; Bueschl, C.; Rechthaler, J.; Berthiller, F.; Lemmens, M.; Schuhmacher, R. Metabolism of HT-2 Toxin and T-2 Toxin in Oats. Toxins 2016, 8, 364.

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