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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 343; doi:10.3390/toxins8110343

Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B1 and G1 in Humans

1
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
2
Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenz Str 20, Tulln A-3430, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sarah De Saeger, Siska Croubels and Kris Audenaert
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [255 KB, uploaded 18 November 2016]

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of multiple toxic fungal and bacterial metabolites in sugarcane grass and juice intended for human consumption in Upper Egypt. Quantification of the target analytes has been done using the “dilute and shoot” approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total number of 29 and 33 different metabolites were detected in 21 sugarcane grass and 40 juice samples, respectively, with a trend of concentrations being higher in grass than in juice. Among the regulated mycotoxins, only aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) were detected. The prevalence of AFB1 was in 48% of grass samples and in 58% of juice with a maximum concentration of 30.6 μg/kg and 2.10 μg/kg, respectively. AFG1 was detected in 10% of grass samples (7.76 μg/kg) and 18% of juice samples (34 μg/kg). Dietary exposure was assessed using a juice frequency questionnaire of adult inhabitants in Assiut City. The assessment revealed different levels of exposure to AFB1 between males and females in winter and summer seasons. The estimated seasonal exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 ng/kg b.w./day in winter and from 0.38 to 0.90 ng/kg b.w./day in summer. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; sugarcane; sugarcane juice; aflatoxins; LC-MS/MS; exposure assessment mycotoxins; sugarcane; sugarcane juice; aflatoxins; LC-MS/MS; exposure assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Abdallah, M.F.; Krska, R.; Sulyok, M. Mycotoxin Contamination in Sugarcane Grass and Juice: First Report on Detection of Multiple Mycotoxins and Exposure Assessment for Aflatoxins B1 and G1 in Humans. Toxins 2016, 8, 343.

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