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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 342; doi:10.3390/toxins8110342

Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi) from Nigeria

1
Laboratory of Food Analysis, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Applied Food Science and Tourism, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umuahia-Ikot Ekpene Road, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
3
Department of Biological Sciences, McPherson University, KM 96 Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, 110117 Seriki Sotayo, Ogun State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: HJ (Ine) van der Fels-Klerx
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1238 KB, uploaded 18 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136), sorghum (110), millet (87), and ogi (30) were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Subsequently, some selected samples were analysed for the occurrence of hidden fumonisins. Overall, 64% of the samples were contaminated with at least one toxin, at the rate of 77%, 44%, 59%, and 97% for maize, sorghum, millet, and ogi, respectively. Fumonisins were the most dominant, especially in maize and ogi, occurring at the rate of 65% and 93% with mean values of 935 and 1128 μg/kg, respectively. The prevalence of diacetoxyscirpenol was observed in maize (13%), sorghum (18%), and millet (29%), irrespective of the agro-ecological zone. Other mycotoxins detected were deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and their metabolites, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, HT-2 toxin, and hidden fumonisins. About 43% of the samples were contaminated with more than one toxin. This study suggests that consumption of cereals and cereal-based products, ogi particularly by infants may be a source of exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium mycotoxins; occurrence; cereal; ogi; LC-MS/MS; Nigeria Fusarium mycotoxins; occurrence; cereal; ogi; LC-MS/MS; Nigeria
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Chilaka, C.A.; De Boevre, M.; Atanda, O.O.; De Saeger, S. Occurrence of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops and Processed Products (Ogi) from Nigeria. Toxins 2016, 8, 342.

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