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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 310; doi:10.3390/toxins8110310

Prevalence, Characterization, and Mycotoxin Production Ability of Fusarium Species on Korean Adlay (Coix lacrymal-jobi L.) Seeds

1
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science (NIHHS), Eumseong, Chungbuk 27709, Korea
2
Department of Applied Biology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
3
Bioenergy Crop Research Institute, National Institute of Crop Science, Rural Development Administration, Muan 58545, Korea
4
Laboratory of Mucosal Exposome and Biomodulation, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan 50612, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimo Reverberi
Received: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Adlay seed samples were collected from three adlay growing regions (Yeoncheon, Hwasun, and Eumseong region) in Korea during 2012. Among all the samples collected, 400 seeds were tested for fungal occurrence by standard blotter and test tube agar methods and different taxonomic groups of fungal genera were detected. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Fusarium, Phoma, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Cochliobolus and Leptosphaerulina. Fusarium species accounted for 45.6% of all species found; and, with phylogenetic analysis based on the combined sequences of two protein coding genes (EF-1α and β-tubulin), 10 Fusarium species were characterized namely, F. incarnatum (11.67%), F. kyushuense (10.33%), F. fujikuroi (8.67%), F. concentricum (6.00%), F. asiaticum (5.67%), F. graminearum (1.67%), F. miscanthi (0.67%), F. polyphialidicum (0.33%), F. armeniacum (0.33%), and F. thapsinum (0.33%). The Fusarium species were then examined for their morphological characteristics to confirm their identity. Morphological observations of the species correlated well with and confirmed their molecular identification. The ability of these isolates to produce the mycotoxins fumonisin (FUM) and zearalenone (ZEN) was tested by the ELISA quantitative analysis method. The result revealed that FUM was produced only by F. fujikuroi and that ZEN was produced by F. asiaticum and F. graminearum. View Full-Text
Keywords: adlay seeds; ELISA; Fusarium; morphological data analysis; mycotoxins; phylogenetic analysis adlay seeds; ELISA; Fusarium; morphological data analysis; mycotoxins; phylogenetic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

An, T.J.; Shin, K.S.; Paul, N.C.; Kim, Y.G.; Cha, S.W.; Moon, Y.; Yu, S.H.; Oh, S.-K. Prevalence, Characterization, and Mycotoxin Production Ability of Fusarium Species on Korean Adlay (Coix lacrymal-jobi L.) Seeds. Toxins 2016, 8, 310.

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