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Toxins 2016, 8(10), 285; doi:10.3390/toxins8100285

Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds

1
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna; Veterinaerplatz 1, Vienna 1210, Austria
2
University Clinic for Swine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, Vienna 1210, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimo Reverberi
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds represents a serious health risk. This has necessitated the need for the establishment of practical methods for mycotoxin decontamination. This study investigated the effects of citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on common trichothecene mycotoxins in feeds contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. Contaminated feed samples were processed either with 5% CA or 5% LA solutions in a ratio of 1:1.2 (w/v) for 5, 24, or 48 h, and analyzed for multiple mycotoxin metabolites using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method. The analyses showed that treating the feed with CA and LA lowered the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON), whereby 5% LA lowered the original DON concentration in the contaminated feed samples by half, irrespective of the processing time. Similar lowering effects were observed for the concentrations of 15Ac-DON, 5-hydroxyculmorin, and sambucinol. The concentration of nivalenol was only lowered by the LA treatment. In contrast, CA and LA treatments showed no or only small effects on the concentration of several mycotoxins and their derivatives, including zearalenone, fumonisins, and culmorin. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the use of 5% solutions of LA and CA might reduce the concentration of common trichothecene mycotoxins, especially DON and its derivate 15Ac-DON. However, further research is required to determine the effect on overall toxicity and to identify the underlying mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: citric acid; grain treatment; lactic acid; mycotoxin decontamination; trichothecenes citric acid; grain treatment; lactic acid; mycotoxin decontamination; trichothecenes
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Humer, E.; Lucke, A.; Harder, H.; Metzler-Zebeli, B.U.; Böhm, J.; Zebeli, Q. Effects of Citric and Lactic Acid on the Reduction of Deoxynivalenol and Its Derivatives in Feeds. Toxins 2016, 8, 285.

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