Next Article in Journal
Development of an Innovative in Vitro Potency Assay for Anti-Botulinum Antitoxins
Next Article in Special Issue
Microcystin-Bound Protein Patterns in Different Cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Field Samples
Previous Article in Journal
Glypican-3 Targeting Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Liver Cancer
Previous Article in Special Issue
Presence of the Cyanotoxin Microcystin in Arctic Lakes of Southwestern Greenland
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2016, 8(10), 272; doi:10.3390/toxins8100272

The Mechanism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Production in Prorocentrum spp.: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives

School of Science and Technology, The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 852, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis M. Botana
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1591 KB, uploaded 27 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature. However, the presence of leucine or glycerophosphate enhances both growth and cellular toxin level. Moreover, the presence of ammonia and incubation in continuous darkness do not favor the toxin production. Currently, studies on the mechanism of this biotoxin production are scant. Full genome sequencing of dinoflagellates is challenging because of the massive genomic size; however, current advanced molecular and omics technologies may provide valuable insight into the biotoxin production mechanism and novel research perspectives on microalgae. This review presents a comprehensive analysis on the effects of various nutritional and physical factors on the OA and DTX production in the DSP toxin-producing Prorocentrum spp. Moreover, the applications of the current molecular technologies in the study on the mechanism of DSP toxin production are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: diarrhetic shellfish poisoning; dinoflagellates; microalgae; okadaic acid; Prorocentrum diarrhetic shellfish poisoning; dinoflagellates; microalgae; okadaic acid; Prorocentrum
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, T.C.-H.; Fong, F.L.-Y.; Ho, K.-C.; Lee, F.W.-F. The Mechanism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Production in Prorocentrum spp.: Physiological and Molecular Perspectives. Toxins 2016, 8, 272.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top