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Toxins 2016, 8(1), 2; doi:10.3390/toxins8010002

Scorpions from Mexico: From Species Diversity to Venom Complexity

1
Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 2001, Apartado Postal 510-3, Cuernavaca Morelos 62210, Mexico
2
Colección Nacional de Arácnidos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Copilco, Coyoacán A.P. 70-233, Distrito Federal 04510, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Genética Molecular, Desarrollo y Evolución de Plantas, Departamento de Ecología Funcional, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-275, Ciudad Universitaria, Distrito Federal 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ren Lai
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 24 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2141 KB, uploaded 24 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods, which are distributed worldwide, except for Antarctica and some Pacific islands. Scorpion envenomation represents a public health problem in several parts of the world. Mexico harbors the highest diversity of scorpions in the world, including some of the world’s medically important scorpion species. The systematics and diversity of Mexican scorpion fauna has not been revised in the past decade; and due to recent and exhaustive collection efforts as part of different ongoing major revisionary systematic projects, our understanding of this diversity has changed compared with previous assessments. Given the presence of several medically important scorpion species, the study of their venom in the country is also important. In the present contribution, the diversity of scorpion species in Mexico is revised and updated based on several new systematic contributions; 281 different species are recorded. Commentaries on recent venomic, ecological and behavioral studies of Mexican scorpions are also provided. A list containing the most important peptides identified from 16 different species is included. A graphical representation of the different types of components found in these venoms is also revised. A map with hotspots showing the current knowledge on scorpion distribution and areas explored in Mexico is also provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: mexico; neotropical; nearctic; buthidae; diplocentridae; vaejovidae; venom; diversity hotspots mexico; neotropical; nearctic; buthidae; diplocentridae; vaejovidae; venom; diversity hotspots
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Santibáñez-López, C.E.; Francke, O.F.; Ureta, C.; Possani, L.D. Scorpions from Mexico: From Species Diversity to Venom Complexity. Toxins 2016, 8, 2.

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