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Toxins 2015, 7(9), 3436-3454; doi:10.3390/toxins7093436

Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis M. Botana
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; saxitoxin; Arothron; pufferfish; Solomon Islands tetrodotoxin; saxitoxin; Arothron; pufferfish; Solomon Islands
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Puilingi, C.G.; Kudo, Y.; Cho, Y.; Konoki, K.; Yotsu-Yamashita, M. Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan. Toxins 2015, 7, 3436-3454.

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