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Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3000-3011; doi:10.3390/toxins7083000

Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Maize by Solid Bar Microextraction with Liquid Chromatography and Fluorescence Detection

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115, Jordan
Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Grisebachstrasse 6, Göttingen 37077, Germany
Department of Soil Biology and Plant Nutrition, University of Kassel, Nordbahnhofstrasse 1a, Witzenhausen 37213, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aldo Laganà
Received: 29 March 2015 / Revised: 26 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [375 KB, uploaded 6 August 2015]   |  


Solid bar microextraction (SBME), followed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), for the quantification of ochratoxin A in wheat and maize was developed. Ground wheat and maize grains were extracted with acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (79:20:1, v/v/v), followed by defatting with cyclohexane, and subjected to SBME-LC-FLD analysis. SBME devices were constructed by packing 2 mg sorbent (C18) into porous polypropylene micro-tubes (2.5 cm length, 600 μm i.d., and 0.2 μm pore size). SBME devices were conditioned with methanol and placed into 5 mL stirred sample solutions for 70 min. After extraction, OTA was desorbed into 200 μL of methanol for 15 min, the solution was removed in vacuum, the residue was dissolved in 50 μL of methanol-water (1:1, v/v) and ochratoxin A content was determined by HPLC-FLD. Under optimized extraction conditions, the limit of detection of 0.9 μg·kg−1 and 2.5 μg·kg−1 and the precision of 3.4% and 5.0% over a concentration range of 1 to 100 μg·kg−1 in wheat and maize flour, respectively, were obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; solid phase microextraction (SPME); solid bar microextraction (SBME) ochratoxin A; solid phase microextraction (SPME); solid bar microextraction (SBME)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Hadithi, N.; Kössler, P.; Karlovsky, P. Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Maize by Solid Bar Microextraction with Liquid Chromatography and Fluorescence Detection. Toxins 2015, 7, 3000-3011.

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