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Toxins 2015, 7(7), 2551-2570; doi:10.3390/toxins7072551

Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

1
Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Artrópodes-LBMA-IB-RC-UNESP (Univ Estadual Paulista), Av. 24-A, n_ 1515, Bela Vista, Rio Claro 13506-900, SP, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Imunologia e Alergia Experimental-LIAE, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, FCM, Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, Rua Tessália Vieira de Camargo n_ 126, Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz", Campinas 13083-887, SP, Brazil
3
Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos-CEVAP (Univ Estadual Paulista), Rua José Barbosa de Barros, 1780, Fazenda Experimental Lageado, Botucatu 18610-307, SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Bryan Grieg Fry and Ronald A. Jenner
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Evolution of Venom Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [634 KB, uploaded 9 July 2015]

Abstract

Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hymenoptera venom; allergy; recombinant allergens; “omics” approaches; diagnosis; immunotherapy Hymenoptera venom; allergy; recombinant allergens; “omics” approaches; diagnosis; immunotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Perez-Riverol, A.; Justo-Jacomini, D.L.; Zollner, R.L.; Brochetto-Braga, M.R. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens. Toxins 2015, 7, 2551-2570.

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