Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A
AbstractBotulinum toxin A inhibits neuromuscular transmission. It has become a drug with many indications. The range of clinical applications has grown to encompass several neurological and non-neurological conditions. One of the most recent achievements in the field is the observation that botulinum toxin A provides benefit in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Although toxin blocks cholinergic nerve endings in the autonomic nervous system, it has also been shown that it does not block non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses mediated by nitric oxide. This has promoted further interest in using botulinum toxin A as a treatment for overactive smooth muscles and sphincters. The introduction of this therapy has made the treatment of several clinical conditions easier, in the outpatient setting, at a lower cost and without permanent complications. This review presents current data on the use of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. View Full-Text
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Brisinda, G.; Sivestrini, N.; Bianco, G.; Maria, G. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A. Toxins 2015, 7, 1882-1916.
Brisinda G, Sivestrini N, Bianco G, Maria G. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A. Toxins. 2015; 7(6):1882-1916.Chicago/Turabian Style
Brisinda, Giuseppe; Sivestrini, Nicola; Bianco, Giuseppe; Maria, Giorgio. 2015. "Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A." Toxins 7, no. 6: 1882-1916.