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Toxins 2015, 7(6), 1882-1916; doi:10.3390/toxins7061882

Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A

Department of Surgery, University Hospital "Agostino Gemelli", Largo Agostino Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bahman Jabbari
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 10 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Botulinum Toxins on Human Pain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [793 KB, uploaded 29 May 2015]

Abstract

Botulinum toxin A inhibits neuromuscular transmission. It has become a drug with many indications. The range of clinical applications has grown to encompass several neurological and non-neurological conditions. One of the most recent achievements in the field is the observation that botulinum toxin A provides benefit in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Although toxin blocks cholinergic nerve endings in the autonomic nervous system, it has also been shown that it does not block non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses mediated by nitric oxide. This has promoted further interest in using botulinum toxin A as a treatment for overactive smooth muscles and sphincters. The introduction of this therapy has made the treatment of several clinical conditions easier, in the outpatient setting, at a lower cost and without permanent complications. This review presents current data on the use of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. View Full-Text
Keywords: anus; physiopathology; autonomic nervous system diseases; biliary diseases; botulinum toxin; therapeutic use; chronic constipation; enteric nervous system; esophageal achalasia; esophageal diseases; exocytosis; fissure-in-ano; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal motility; membrane fusion; membrane proteins; neuromuscular agents; obesity; pain; spasm anus; physiopathology; autonomic nervous system diseases; biliary diseases; botulinum toxin; therapeutic use; chronic constipation; enteric nervous system; esophageal achalasia; esophageal diseases; exocytosis; fissure-in-ano; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal motility; membrane fusion; membrane proteins; neuromuscular agents; obesity; pain; spasm
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brisinda, G.; Sivestrini, N.; Bianco, G.; Maria, G. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A. Toxins 2015, 7, 1882-1916.

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