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Toxins 2015, 7(12), 5212-5223; doi:10.3390/toxins7124872

MC-LR Exposure Leads to Subfertility of Female Mice and Induces Oxidative Stress in Granulosa Cells

1,2,†
,
1,2,†
,
1,2
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Immunology and Reproduction Biology Laboratory and State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, China
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vítor Vasconcelos and Pedro Leão
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2410 KB, uploaded 2 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Health risk of human exposure to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) has aroused more and more attention over the past few decades. In the present study, MC-LR was orally administered to female mice at 0, 1, 10 and 40 μg/L for three and six months. We found that chronic exposure to MC-LR at environmental levels could stimulate follicle atresia and lead to decreased developmental follicles, accompanied by a reduction of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In line with the irregular gonadal hormone level and estrus cycles, subfertility of female mice was also confirmed by analyzing numbers of litters and pups. The in vitro study suggested that granulosa cells could uptake MC-LR and should be the target of the toxicant. Oxidative stress in granulose cells induced by MC-LR promoted follicle atresia and eventually leads to female subfertility. View Full-Text
Keywords: MC-LR; follicle atresia; female subfertility; granulosa cells; oxidative stress MC-LR; follicle atresia; female subfertility; granulosa cells; oxidative stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, J.; Yuan, M.; Song, Y.; Sun, F.; Han, X. MC-LR Exposure Leads to Subfertility of Female Mice and Induces Oxidative Stress in Granulosa Cells. Toxins 2015, 7, 5212-5223.

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