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Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4484-4502; doi:10.3390/toxins7114484

Effects of Mycotoxins on Mucosal Microbial Infection and Related Pathogenesis

1,2,†
,
3,†
,
1,2
and
1,4,*
1
Laboratory of Mucosal Exposome and Biomodulation, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan 50612, Korea
2
Research Institute for Basic Sciences and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
3
National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Wanju 55365, Korea
4
Immunoregulatory Therapeutics Group in Brain Busan 21 Project, Busan 46241, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiujiang Yu
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 28 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Human Diseases 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [666 KB, uploaded 30 October 2015]

Abstract

Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities and water-damaged indoor environments. Susceptibility to mucosal infectious diseases is closely associated with immune dysfunction caused by mycotoxin exposure in humans and other animals. Many mycotoxins suppress immune function by decreasing the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, impairing phagocytic function of macrophages, and suppressing cytokine production, but some induce hypersensitive responses in different dose regimes. The present review describes various mycotoxin responses to infectious pathogens that trigger mucosa-associated diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of humans and other animals. In particular, it focuses on the effects of mycotoxin exposure on invasion, pathogen clearance, the production of cytokines and immunoglobulins, and the prognostic implications of interactions between infectious pathogens and mycotoxin exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycotoxins; microbial infection; mucosal pathogenesis Mycotoxins; microbial infection; mucosal pathogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, S.-H.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Moon, Y. Effects of Mycotoxins on Mucosal Microbial Infection and Related Pathogenesis. Toxins 2015, 7, 4484-4502.

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