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Toxins 2015, 7(1), 187-200; doi:10.3390/toxins7010187

Low Toxicity of Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside in Microbial Cells

Applied Microbiology Division, National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannon-dai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan
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Academic Editor: Susanne Vogelgsang
Received: 5 December 2014 / Revised: 18 December 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Host plants excrete a glucosylation enzyme onto the plant surface that changes mycotoxins derived from fungal secondary metabolites to glucosylated products. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3G) is synthesized by grain uridine diphosphate-glucosyltransferase, and is found worldwide, although information on its toxicity is lacking. Here, we conducted growth tests and DNA microarray analysis to elucidate the characteristics of DON3G. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PDR5 mutant strain exposed to DON3G demonstrated similar growth to the dimethyl sulfoxide control, and DNA microarray analysis revealed limited differences. Only 10 genes were extracted, and the expression profile of stress response genes was similar to that of DON, in contrast to metabolism genes like SER3, which encodes 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Growth tests with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii also showed a similar growth rate to the control sample. These results suggest that DON3G has extremely low toxicity to these cells, and the glucosylation of mycotoxins is a useful protective mechanism not only for host plants, but also for other species. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; DNA microarray; yeast; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside; DNA microarray; yeast; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Suzuki, T.; Iwahashi, Y. Low Toxicity of Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside in Microbial Cells. Toxins 2015, 7, 187-200.

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