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Toxins 2014, 6(9), 2804-2825; doi:10.3390/toxins6092804

Fumonisins in Conventional and Transgenic, Insect-Resistant Maize Intended for Fuel Ethanol Production: Implications for Fermentation Efficiency and DDGS Co-Product Quality

1
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, National Swine Research Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Seed Science Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 22 September 2014
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Abstract

Mycotoxins in maize grain intended for ethanol production are enriched in co-product dried distiller’s grains and solubles (DDGS) and may be detrimental to yeast in fermentation. This study was conducted to examine the magnitude of fumonisin enrichment in DDGS and to analyze the impacts of insect injury, Fusarium ear rot severity, and fumonisin contamination on final ethanol yield. Samples of naturally-contaminated grain (0 to 35 mg/kg fumonisins) from field trials conducted in 2008–2011 were fermented and DDGS collected and analyzed for fumonisin content. Ethanol yield (determined gravimetrically) was unaffected by fumonisins in the range occurring in this study, and was not correlated with insect injury or Fusarium ear rot severity. Ethanol production was unaffected in fumonisin B1-spiked grain with concentrations from 0 to 37 mg/kg. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize often has reduced fumonisins due to its protection from insect injury and subsequent fungal infection. DDGS derived from Bt and non-Bt maize averaged 2.04 mg/kg and 8.25 mg/kg fumonisins, respectively. Fumonisins were enriched by 3.0× for 50 out of 57 hybrid × insect infestation treatment combinations; those seven that differed were <3.0 (1.56 to 2.56×). This study supports the industry assumption of three-fold fumonisin enrichment in DDGS, with measurements traceable to individual samples. Under significant insect pest pressures, DDGS derived from Bt maize hybrids were consistently lower in fumonisins than DDGS derived from non-Bt hybrids. View Full-Text
Keywords: fumonisin; distillers grains; DDGS; ethanol; fermentation; Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt maize; GM maize fumonisin; distillers grains; DDGS; ethanol; fermentation; Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt maize; GM maize
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bowers, E.L.; Munkvold, G.P. Fumonisins in Conventional and Transgenic, Insect-Resistant Maize Intended for Fuel Ethanol Production: Implications for Fermentation Efficiency and DDGS Co-Product Quality. Toxins 2014, 6, 2804-2825.

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