Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being
AbstractSome pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of action for each toxin. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Stiles, B.G.; Pradhan, K.; Fleming, J.M.; Samy, R.P.; Barth, H.; Popoff, M.R. Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being. Toxins 2014, 6, 2626-2656.
Stiles BG, Pradhan K, Fleming JM, Samy RP, Barth H, Popoff MR. Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being. Toxins. 2014; 6(9):2626-2656.Chicago/Turabian Style
Stiles, Bradley G.; Pradhan, Kisha; Fleming, Jodie M.; Samy, Ramar P.; Barth, Holger; Popoff, Michel R. 2014. "Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being." Toxins 6, no. 9: 2626-2656.