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Toxins 2014, 6(9), 2626-2656; doi:10.3390/toxins6092626

Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being

1
Biology Department, Wilson College, 1015 Philadelphia Avenue, Chambersburg, PA 17201, USA
2
Environmental Science Department, Wilson College, 1015 Philadelphia Avenue, Chambersburg, PA 17201, USA
3
Department of Biology, North Carolina Central University, 1801 Fayetteville Street, Durham, NC 27707, USA
4
Venom and Toxin Research Programme, Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 117597, Singapore
5
Infectious Diseases Programme, Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 117597, Singapore
6
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ulm Medical Center, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm D-89081, Germany
7
Bacteries Anaerobies et Toxines, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, Paris 75724, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins: Microbial Proteins and Host Cell Dysregulation)
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Abstract

Some pathogenic spore-forming bacilli employ a binary protein mechanism for intoxicating the intestinal tracts of insects, animals, and humans. These Gram-positive bacteria and their toxins include Clostridium botulinum (C2 toxin), Clostridium difficile (C. difficile toxin or CDT), Clostridium perfringens (ι-toxin and binary enterotoxin, or BEC), Clostridium spiroforme (C. spiroforme toxin or CST), as well as Bacillus cereus (vegetative insecticidal protein or VIP). These gut-acting proteins form an AB complex composed of ADP-ribosyl transferase (A) and cell-binding (B) components that intoxicate cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and endosomal trafficking. Once inside the cytosol, the A components inhibit normal cell functions by mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin, which induces cytoskeletal disarray and death. Important aspects of each bacterium and binary enterotoxin will be highlighted in this review, with particular focus upon the disease process involving the biochemistry and modes of action for each toxin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clostridium; Bacillus; protein; binary enterotoxin; receptor; actin Clostridium; Bacillus; protein; binary enterotoxin; receptor; actin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stiles, B.G.; Pradhan, K.; Fleming, J.M.; Samy, R.P.; Barth, H.; Popoff, M.R. Clostridium and Bacillus Binary Enterotoxins: Bad for the Bowels, and Eukaryotic Being. Toxins 2014, 6, 2626-2656.

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