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Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2379-2392; doi:10.3390/toxins6082379

Bioreactor Study Employing Bacteria with Enhanced Activity toward Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystins

1,* , 1
1 Department of Plant Physiology and Development, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30387 Kraków, Poland 2 Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30387 Kraków, Poland 3 Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30387 Kraków, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 24 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 July 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
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An important aim of white (grey) biotechnology is bioremediation, where microbes are employed to remove unwanted chemicals. Microcystins (MCs) and other cyanobacterial toxins are not industrial or agricultural pollutants; however, their occurrence as a consequence of human activity and water reservoir eutrophication is regarded as anthropogenic. Microbial degradation of microcystins is suggested as an alternative to chemical and physical methods of their elimination. This paper describes a possible technique of the practical application of the biodegradation process. The idea relies on the utilization of bacteria with a significantly enhanced MC-degradation ability (in comparison with wild strains). The cells of an Escherichia coli laboratory strain expressing microcystinase (MlrA) responsible for the detoxification of MCs were immobilized in alginate beads. The degradation potency of the tested bioreactors was monitored by HPLC detection of linear microcystin LR (MC-LR) as the MlrA degradation product. An open system based on a column filled with alginate-entrapped cells was shown to operate more efficiently than a closed system (alginate beads shaken in a glass container). The maximal degradation rate calculated per one liter of carrier was 219.9 µg h−1 of degraded MC-LR. A comparison of the efficiency of the described system with other biological and chemo-physical proposals suggests that this new idea presents several advantages and is worth investigating in future studies.
Keywords: microcystin; microbial degradation; bioreactor microcystin; microbial degradation; bioreactor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Dziga, D.; Lisznianska, M.; Wladyka, B. Bioreactor Study Employing Bacteria with Enhanced Activity toward Cyanobacterial Toxins Microcystins. Toxins 2014, 6, 2379-2392.

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