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Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2229-2238; doi:10.3390/toxins6082229

Thuringiensin: A Thermostable Secondary Metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with Insecticidal Activity against a Wide Range of Insects

1
Hubei Biopesticide Engineering Research Center, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 25 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> Toxins)
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Abstract

Thuringiensin (Thu), also known as β-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied insecticidal crystal protein, Thu is not a protein but a small molecule oligosaccharide. In this review, a detailed and updated description of the characteristics, structure, insecticidal mechanism, separation and purification technology, and genetic determinants of Thu is provided.
Keywords: thuringiensin; Bacillus thuringiensis; insecticidal mechanism; genetic determinants thuringiensin; Bacillus thuringiensis; insecticidal mechanism; genetic determinants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, X.; Ruan, L.; Peng, D.; Li, L.; Sun, M.; Yu, Z. Thuringiensin: A Thermostable Secondary Metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with Insecticidal Activity against a Wide Range of Insects. Toxins 2014, 6, 2229-2238.

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