Toxins 2014, 6(6), 1785-1798; doi:10.3390/toxins6061785
Article

Further Insights into Brevetoxin Metabolism by de Novo Radiolabeling

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Received: 6 April 2014; in revised form: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 27 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, responsible for early harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico, produces many secondary metabolites, including potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins (PbTx). These compounds have been identified as toxic agents for humans, and they are also responsible for the deaths of several marine organisms. The overall biosynthesis of these highly complex metabolites has not been fully ascertained, even if there is little doubt on a polyketide origin. In addition to gaining some insights into the metabolic events involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds, feeding studies with labeled precursors helps to discriminate between the de novo biosynthesis of toxins and conversion of stored intermediates into final toxic products in the response to environmental stresses. In this context, the use of radiolabeled precursors is well suited as it allows working with the highest sensitive techniques and consequently with a minor amount of cultured dinoflagellates. We were then able to incorporate [U-14C]-acetate, the renowned precursor of the polyketide pathway, in several PbTx produced by K. brevis. The specific activities of PbTx-1, -2, -3, and -7, identified by High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HRESIMS), were assessed by HPLC-UV and highly sensitive Radio-TLC counting. We demonstrated that working at close to natural concentrations of acetate is a requirement for biosynthetic studies, highlighting the importance of highly sensitive radiolabeling feeding experiments. Quantification of the specific activity of the four, targeted toxins led us to propose that PbTx-1 and PbTx-2 aldehydes originate from oxidation of the primary alcohols of PbTx-7 and PbTx-3, respectively. This approach will open the way for a better comprehension of the metabolic pathways leading to PbTx but also to a better understanding of their regulation by environmental factors.
Keywords: Karenia brevis; polyketide; brevetoxins; metabolism; radiolabeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Calabro, K.; Guigonis, J.-M.; Teyssié, J.-L.; Oberhänsli, F.; Goudour, J.-P.; Warnau, M.; Bottein, M.-Y.D.; Thomas, O.P. Further Insights into Brevetoxin Metabolism by de Novo Radiolabeling. Toxins 2014, 6, 1785-1798.

AMA Style

Calabro K, Guigonis J-M, Teyssié J-L, Oberhänsli F, Goudour J-P, Warnau M, Bottein M-YD, Thomas OP. Further Insights into Brevetoxin Metabolism by de Novo Radiolabeling. Toxins. 2014; 6(6):1785-1798.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Calabro, Kevin; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhänsli, François; Goudour, Jean-Pierre; Warnau, Michel; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine D.; Thomas, Olivier P. 2014. "Further Insights into Brevetoxin Metabolism by de Novo Radiolabeling." Toxins 6, no. 6: 1785-1798.

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