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Toxins, Volume 6, Issue 5 (May 2014), Pages 1471-1695

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Draft Genome Sequences of Two Bacillus thuringiensis Strains and Characterization of a Putative 41.9-kDa Insecticidal Toxin
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1490-1504; doi:10.3390/toxins6051490
Received: 19 February 2014 / Revised: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we report the genome sequencing of two Bacillus thuringiensis strains using Illumina next-generation sequencing technology (NGS). Strain Hu4-2, toxic to many lepidopteran pest species and to some mosquitoes, encoded genes for two insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins, cry1Ia and cry9Ea,
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In this work, we report the genome sequencing of two Bacillus thuringiensis strains using Illumina next-generation sequencing technology (NGS). Strain Hu4-2, toxic to many lepidopteran pest species and to some mosquitoes, encoded genes for two insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins, cry1Ia and cry9Ea, and a vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) gene, vip3Ca2. Strain Leapi01 contained genes coding for seven Cry proteins (cry1Aa, cry1Ca, cry1Da, cry2Ab, cry9Ea and two cry1Ia gene variants) and a vip3 gene (vip3Aa10). A putative novel insecticidal protein gene 1143 bp long was found in both strains, whose sequences exhibited 100% nucleotide identity. The predicted protein showed 57 and 100% pairwise identity to protein sequence 72 from a patented Bt strain (US8318900) and to a putative 41.9-kDa insecticidal toxin from Bacillus cereus, respectively. The 41.9-kDa protein, containing a C-terminal 6× HisTag fusion, was expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for the first time against four lepidopteran species (Mamestra brassicae, Ostrinia nubilalis, Spodoptera frugiperda and S. littoralis) and the green-peach aphid Myzus persicae at doses as high as 4.8 µg/cm2 and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively. At these protein concentrations, the recombinant 41.9-kDa protein caused no mortality or symptoms of impaired growth against any of the insects tested, suggesting that these species are outside the protein’s target range or that the protein may not, in fact, be toxic. While the use of the polymerase chain reaction has allowed a significant increase in the number of Bt insecticidal genes characterized to date, novel NGS technologies promise a much faster, cheaper and efficient screening of Bt pesticidal proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> Toxins)
Open AccessArticle Role of Fc in Antibody-Mediated Protection from Ricin Toxin
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1512-1525; doi:10.3390/toxins6051512
Received: 4 February 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 7 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have studied the role of the antibody (Ab) Fc region in mediating protection from ricin toxicity. We compared the in vitro and in vivo effects of intact Ig and of Fab fragments derived from two different neutralizing Ab preparations, one monoclonal, the
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We have studied the role of the antibody (Ab) Fc region in mediating protection from ricin toxicity. We compared the in vitro and in vivo effects of intact Ig and of Fab fragments derived from two different neutralizing Ab preparations, one monoclonal, the other polyclonal. Consistent results were obtained from each, showing little difference between Ig and Fab in terms of antigen binding and in vitro neutralization, but with relatively large differences in protection of animals. We also studied whether importing Ab into the cell by Fc receptors enhanced the intracellular neutralization of ricin toxin. We found that the imported Ab was found in the ER and Golgi, a compartment traversed by ricin, as it traffics through the cell, but intracellular Ab did not contribute to the neutralization of ricin. These results indicate that the Fc region of antibody is important for in vivo protection, although the mechanism of enhanced protection by intact Ig does not appear to operate at the single cell level. When using xenogeneic antibodies, the diminished immunogenicity of Fab/F(ab’)2 preparations should be balanced against possible loss of protective efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-Antibody Interactions)
Open AccessArticle Ophiophagus hannah Venom: Proteome, Components Bound by Naja kaouthia Antivenin and Neutralization by N. kaouthia Neurotoxin-Specific Human ScFv
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1526-1558; doi:10.3390/toxins6051526
Received: 15 February 2014 / Revised: 20 April 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to
[...] Read more.
Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to N. kaouthia monospecific antivenin were studied. O. hannah venom consisted of 14 different protein families, including three finger toxins, phospholipases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, cobra venom factor, muscarinic toxin, L-amino acid oxidase, hypothetical proteins, low cysteine protein, phosphodiesterase, proteases, vespryn toxin, Kunitz, growth factor activators and others (coagulation factor, endonuclease, 5’-nucleotidase). N. kaouthia antivenin recognized several functionally different O. hannah venom proteins and mediated paratherapeutic efficacy by rescuing the O. hannah envenomed mice from lethality. An engineered human ScFv specific to N. kaouthia long neurotoxin (NkLN-HuScFv) cross-neutralized the O. hannah venom and extricated the O. hannah envenomed mice from death in a dose escalation manner. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that NkLN-HuScFv interacted with residues in loops 2 and 3 of the neurotoxins of both snake species, which are important for neuronal acetylcholine receptor binding. The data of this study are useful for snakebite treatment when and where the polyspecific antivenin is not available. Because the supply of horse-derived antivenin is limited and the preparation may cause some adverse effects in recipients, a cocktail of recombinant human ScFvs for various toxic venom components shared by different venomous snakes, exemplified by the in vitro produced NkLN-HuScFv in this study, should contribute to a possible future route for an improved alternative to the antivenins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivenom and Venom Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Induction of Erythrocyte Phosphatidylserine Translocation by the Natural Naphthoquinone Shikonin
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1559-1574; doi:10.3390/toxins6051559
Received: 4 March 2014 / Revised: 5 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (634 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shikonin, the most important component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has previously been shown to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. The anticancer effect has been attributed to the stimulation of suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to the apoptosis of
[...] Read more.
Shikonin, the most important component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has previously been shown to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. The anticancer effect has been attributed to the stimulation of suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may experience eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include the increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and ceramide formation. The present study explored whether Shikonin stimulates eryptosis. To this end, Fluo 3 fluorescence was measured to quantify [Ca2+]i, forward scatter to estimate cell volume, annexin V binding to identify phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes, hemoglobin release to determine hemolysis and antibodies to quantify ceramide abundance. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Shikonin (1 µM) significantly increased [Ca2+]i, increased ceramide abundance, decreased forward scatter and increased annexin V binding. The effect of Shikonin (1 µM) on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Shikonin stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least partially due to the stimulation of Ca2+ entry and ceramide formation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fluorescence Localization and Comparative Ultrastructural Study of Periplocoside NW from Periploca sepium Bunge in the Midgut of the Oriental Amyworm, Mythimna separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1575-1585; doi:10.3390/toxins6051575
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Periplocoside NW (PSNW) is a novel insecticidal compound isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge and has potent stomach toxicity against some insect pests. Previous studies showed that the Mythimna separata larva is sensitive to PSNW, but the Agrotis ispilon larva
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Periplocoside NW (PSNW) is a novel insecticidal compound isolated from the root bark of Periploca sepium Bunge and has potent stomach toxicity against some insect pests. Previous studies showed that the Mythimna separata larva is sensitive to PSNW, but the Agrotis ispilon larva is insensitive. In this study, preliminary target localization on the midgut of M. separata larvae was conducted via a fluorescence labeling technique. A comparative ultrastructural study on the effects of PSNW on the midguts of M. separata and A. ispilon larvae was performed. Symptom observation results showed that typical stomach toxicity was induced by PSNW in M. separata larvae. Fluorescence localization results showed that PSNW binds to the midgut cells of M. separata larvae. Ultrastructure observations showed destruction of the microvilli, organelle, and cytomembrane in the midgut cells of M. separata larvae, whereas no obvious changes were observed in midgut cells of A. ispilon larvae. These results were consistent with the insecticidal activity of PSNW. Therefore, PSNW might act on the midgut tissues of the insects, and one or more binding sites of PSNW may exist in M. separata larvae midgut cell cytomembranes. Full article
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Toxic Effects of Puff Adder (Bitis arietans) Venom, and Their Neutralization by Antivenom
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1586-1597; doi:10.3390/toxins6051586
Received: 24 November 2013 / Revised: 6 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of Bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR) to neutralize these effects. The venom (50 µg/mL) reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the in vitro toxic effects of Bitis arietans venom and the ability of antivenom produced by the South African Institute of Medical Research (SAIMR) to neutralize these effects. The venom (50 µg/mL) reduced nerve-mediated twitches of the chick biventer muscle to 19% ± 2% of initial magnitude (n = 4) within 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the venom was significantly attenuated by prior incubation of tissues with SAIMR antivenom (0.864 µg/µL; 67% ± 4%; P < 0.05; n = 3–5, unpaired t-test). Addition of antivenom at t50 failed to prevent further inhibition or reverse the inhibition of twitches and responses to agonists. The myotoxic action of the venom (50 µg/mL) was evidenced by a decrease in direct twitches (30% ± 6% of the initial twitch magnitude) and increase in baseline tension (by 0.7 ± 0.3 g within 3 h) of the chick biventer. Antivenom failed to block these effects. Antivenom however prevented the venom induced cytotoxic effects on L6 skeletal muscle cells. Venom induced a marginal but significant reduction in plasma clotting times at concentrations above 7.8 µg/100 µL of plasma, indicating poor procoagulant effects. In addition, the results of western immunoblotting indicate strong immunoreactivity with venom proteins, thus warranting further detailed studies on the neutralization of the effects of individual venom toxins by antivenom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Open AccessArticle Requirement of Simultaneous Assessment of Crystal- and Supernatant-Related Entomotoxic Activities of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for Biocontrol-Product Development
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1598-1614; doi:10.3390/toxins6051598
Received: 6 February 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 12 May 2014 / Published: 20 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in culture supernatants (SN) have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1), whereas others are
[...] Read more.
Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in culture supernatants (SN) have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1), whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins), as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01) was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 107 endospores mL−1 caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> Toxins)
Open AccessArticle Reporter Assay for Endo/Lysosomal Escape of Toxin-Based Therapeutics
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1644-1666; doi:10.3390/toxins6051644
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Protein-based therapeutics with cytosolic targets are capable of exhibiting their therapeutic effect once they have escaped from the endosomes or lysosomes. In this study, the reporters—horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Alexa Fluor 488 (Alexa) and ricin A-chain (RTA)—were investigated for their capacity to
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Protein-based therapeutics with cytosolic targets are capable of exhibiting their therapeutic effect once they have escaped from the endosomes or lysosomes. In this study, the reporters—horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Alexa Fluor 488 (Alexa) and ricin A-chain (RTA)—were investigated for their capacity to monitor the endo/lysosomal escape of the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin. The conjugates—saporin-HRP, Alexasaporin and saporin-KQ-RTA—were constructed, and the endo/lysosomal escape of these conjugates alone (lack of endo/lysosomal release) or in combination with certain structurally-specific triterpenoidal saponins (efficient endo/lysosomal escape) was characterized. HRP failed in reporting the endo/lysosomal escape of saporin. Contrastingly, Alexa Fluor 488 successfully allowed the report of the process at a toxin concentration of 1000 nM. In addition, single endo/lysosome analysis facilitated the determination of the amount of Alexasaporin released from each vesicle. RTA was also successful in reporting the endo/lysosomal escape of the enzymatically inactive mutant, saporin-KQ, but in this case, the sensitivity of the method reached a toxin concentration of 10 nM. In conclusion, the simultaneous usage of Alexa Fluor 488 and RTA as reporters may provide the possibility of monitoring the endo/lysosomal escape of protein-based therapeutics in the concentration range of 10–1000 nM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intracellular Traffic and Transport of Bacterial Protein Toxins)

Review

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Open AccessReview Staphylococcal enterotoxins in the Etiopathogenesis of Mucosal Autoimmunity within the Gastrointestinal Tract
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1471-1489; doi:10.3390/toxins6051471
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (829 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are the products of Staphylococcus aureus and are recognized as the causative agents of classical food poisoning in humans following the consumption of contaminated food. While illness evoked by ingestion of the SE or its producer organism in tainted
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The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are the products of Staphylococcus aureus and are recognized as the causative agents of classical food poisoning in humans following the consumption of contaminated food. While illness evoked by ingestion of the SE or its producer organism in tainted food are often self-limited, our current understanding regarding the evolution of S. aureus provokes the utmost concern. The organism and its associated toxins, has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states including infections of the skin, heart, sinuses, inflammatory gastrointestinal disease, toxic shock, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The intricate relationship between the various subsets of immunocompetent T cells and accessory cells and the ingested material found within the gastrointestinal tract present daunting challenges to the maintenance of immunologic homeostasis. Dysregulation of the intricate balances within this environment has the potential for extreme consequences within the host, some of which are long-lived. The focus of this review is to evaluate the relevance of staphylococcal enterotoxin in the context of mucosal immunity, and the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview Uremic Toxins and Lipases in Haemodialysis: A Process of Repeated Metabolic Starvation
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1505-1511; doi:10.3390/toxins6051505
Received: 11 March 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Severe kidney disease results in retention of uremic toxins that inhibit key enzymes for lipid breakdown such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL). For patients in haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) the LPL activity is only about half of that
[...] Read more.
Severe kidney disease results in retention of uremic toxins that inhibit key enzymes for lipid breakdown such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL). For patients in haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) the LPL activity is only about half of that of age and gender matched controls. Angiopoietin, like protein 3 and 4, accumulate in the uremic patients. These factors, therefore, can be considered as uremic toxins. In animal experiments it has been shown that these factors inhibit the LPL activity. To avoid clotting of the dialysis circuit during HD, anticoagulation such as heparin or low molecular weight heparin are added to the patient. Such administration will cause a prompt release of the LPL and HL from its binding sites at the endothelial surface. The liver rapidly degrades the release plasma compound of LPL and HL. This results in a lack of enzyme to degrade triglycerides during the later part of the HD and for another 3–4 h. PD patients have a similar baseline level of lipases but are not exposed to the negative effect of anticoagulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremic Toxins)
Open AccessReview Effect of Deoxynivalenol and Other Type B Trichothecenes on the Intestine: A Review
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1615-1643; doi:10.3390/toxins6051615
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The natural food contaminants, mycotoxins, are regarded as an important risk factor for human and animal health, as up to 25% of the world’s crop production may be contaminated. The Fusarium genus produces large quantities of fusariotoxins, among which the trichothecenes are considered
[...] Read more.
The natural food contaminants, mycotoxins, are regarded as an important risk factor for human and animal health, as up to 25% of the world’s crop production may be contaminated. The Fusarium genus produces large quantities of fusariotoxins, among which the trichothecenes are considered as a ubiquitous problem worldwide. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physiological barrier against food contaminants, as well as the first target for these toxicants. An increasing number of studies suggest that intestinal epithelial cells are targets for deoxynivalenol (DON) and other Type B trichothecenes (TCTB). In humans, various adverse digestive symptoms are observed on acute exposure, and in animals, these toxins induce pathological lesions, including necrosis of the intestinal epithelium. They affect the integrity of the intestinal epithelium through alterations in cell morphology and differentiation and in the barrier function. Moreover, DON and TCTB modulate the activity of intestinal epithelium in its role in immune responsiveness. TCTB affect cytokine production by intestinal or immune cells and are supposed to interfere with the cross-talk between epithelial cells and other intestinal immune cells. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the effects of DON and other TCTB on the intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research)
Open AccessReview Diagnosis of Snakebite and the Importance of Immunological Tests in Venom Research
Toxins 2014, 6(5), 1667-1695; doi:10.3390/toxins6051667
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 14 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In many cases of envenoming following snake bite, the snake responsible for the accident remains unidentified; this frequently results in difficulty deciding which antivenom to administer to the systemically-envenomed victim, especially when only monospecific antivenoms are available. Normally the specific diagnosis of snake
[...] Read more.
In many cases of envenoming following snake bite, the snake responsible for the accident remains unidentified; this frequently results in difficulty deciding which antivenom to administer to the systemically-envenomed victim, especially when only monospecific antivenoms are available. Normally the specific diagnosis of snake bite can be conveniently made using clinical and laboratory methods. Where clinical diagnosis depends upon the recognition of specific signs of envenoming in the patient, laboratory diagnosis is based on the changes which occur in envenomed victims including the detection of abnormalities in blood parameters, presence/absence of myoglobinuria, changes in certain enzyme levels, presence/absence of neurotoxic signs and the detection in the blood of specific venom antigens using immunologically-based techniques, such as enzyme immunoassay. It is the latter which is the main subject of this review, together with the application of techniques currently used to objectively assess the effectiveness of new and existing antivenoms, to assess first aid measures, to investigate the possible use of such methods in epidemiological studies, and to detect individual venom components. With this in mind, we have discussed in some detail how such techniques were developed and how they have helped in the treatment of envenoming particularly and in venom research in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivenom and Venom Therapeutics)

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