Toxins 2014, 6(4), 1453-1470; doi:10.3390/toxins6041453
Article

The Use of Recently Developed Histochemical Markers for Localizing Neurotoxicant Induced Regional Brain Pathologies

Received: 7 March 2014; in revised form: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 24 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Neuronal and vascular brain components are interrelated morphologically, physiologically and developmentally. Due to this close interrelationship, it is often difficult to understand the cause and effect relationship between neuronal vs. vascular dysfunction and pathology. This review will discuss four of the more promising recent developments for detecting vascular pathology, and will compare them with the labeling pattern seen with markers of glial and neuronal pathology; following exposure to well characterized neurotoxicants. To detect the vascular dysfunction in the brain, we recently developed a Fluoro-Turquoise gelatin conjugate (FT-gel), a fluorescent probe that helps to delineate between healthy vs. sclerotic vessels. Similarly, we have investigated the potential for Fluoro-Gold to label in vivo all the endothelial cells in the brain as they co-localize with RECA, an endothelial cell marker. We have also developed Amylo-Glo, a fluorescent tracer that can detect neurotoxic A-beta aggregates in the brain. In this article, we will discuss the potential use of these novel histochemical markers to study the neurotoxicant induced brain. We will also discuss neurovascular strategies that may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative disorders.
Keywords: Fluoro-Gold (FG); Amylo-Glo; Fluoro-Gold dextran; Fluoro-Ruby (FR); pericytes; blood vessels; basement membrane; kainic acid; AD; amyloid A-beta
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarkar, S.; Raymick, J.; Schmued, L.C. The Use of Recently Developed Histochemical Markers for Localizing Neurotoxicant Induced Regional Brain Pathologies. Toxins 2014, 6, 1453-1470.

AMA Style

Sarkar S, Raymick J, Schmued LC. The Use of Recently Developed Histochemical Markers for Localizing Neurotoxicant Induced Regional Brain Pathologies. Toxins. 2014; 6(4):1453-1470.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Schmued, Larry C. 2014. "The Use of Recently Developed Histochemical Markers for Localizing Neurotoxicant Induced Regional Brain Pathologies." Toxins 6, no. 4: 1453-1470.

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