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Toxins 2014, 6(4), 1325-1348; doi:10.3390/toxins6041325
Review

Recent Developments in Antibody-Based Assays for the Detection of Bacterial Toxins

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Received: 10 February 2014; in revised form: 10 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 11 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-Antibody Interactions)
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Abstract: Considering the urgent demand for rapid and accurate determination of bacterial toxins and the recent promising developments in nanotechnology and microfluidics, this review summarizes new achievements of the past five years. Firstly, bacterial toxins will be categorized according to their antibody binding properties into low and high molecular weight compounds. Secondly, the types of antibodies and new techniques for producing antibodies are discussed, including poly- and mono-clonal antibodies, single-chain variable fragments (scFv), as well as heavy-chain and recombinant antibodies. Thirdly, the use of different nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), quantum dots (QDs) and carbon nanomaterials (graphene and carbon nanotube), for labeling antibodies and toxins or for readout techniques will be summarized. Fourthly, microscale analysis or minimized devices, for example microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip (LOC), which have attracted increasing attention in combination with immunoassays for the robust detection or point-of-care testing (POCT), will be reviewed. Finally, some new materials and analytical strategies, which might be promising for analyzing toxins in the near future, will be shortly introduced.
Keywords: bacterial toxins; antibodies; immunoassay; nanomaterials; microfluidics bacterial toxins; antibodies; immunoassay; nanomaterials; microfluidics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, K.; Dietrich, R.; Didier, A.; Doyscher, D.; Märtlbauer, E. Recent Developments in Antibody-Based Assays for the Detection of Bacterial Toxins. Toxins 2014, 6, 1325-1348.

AMA Style

Zhu K, Dietrich R, Didier A, Doyscher D, Märtlbauer E. Recent Developments in Antibody-Based Assays for the Detection of Bacterial Toxins. Toxins. 2014; 6(4):1325-1348.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Kui; Dietrich, Richard; Didier, Andrea; Doyscher, Dominik; Märtlbauer, Erwin. 2014. "Recent Developments in Antibody-Based Assays for the Detection of Bacterial Toxins." Toxins 6, no. 4: 1325-1348.


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