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Toxins 2014, 6(3), 988-1001; doi:10.3390/toxins6030988
Article

The Venom of the Spider Selenocosmia Jiafu Contains Various Neurotoxins Acting on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

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1 Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China 2 Key Laboratory of Research and Utilization of Ethnomedicinal Plant Resources of Hunan Province, Department of Life Science, Huaihua College, Huaihua, Hunan 418008, China
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Selenocosmia jiafu is a medium-sized theraphosid spider and an attractive source of venom, because it can be bred in captivity and it produces large amounts of venom. We performed reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analyses and showed that S. jiafu venom contains hundreds of peptides with a predominant mass of 3000–4500 Da. Patch clamp analyses indicated that the venom could inhibit voltage-gated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The venom exhibited inhibitory effects on tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents and T-type Ca2+ currents, suggesting the presence of antagonists to both channel types and providing a valuable tool for the investigation of these channels and for drug development. Intra-abdominal injection of the venom had severe toxic effects on cockroaches and caused death at higher concentrations. The LD50 was 84.24 μg/g of body weight in the cockroach. However, no visible symptoms or behavioral changes were detected after intraperitoneal injection of the venom into mice even at doses up to 10 mg/kg body weight. Our results provide a basis for further case-by-case investigations of peptide toxins from this venom.
Keywords: Selenocosmia jiafu; spider venom; RP-HPLC; MALDI-TOF-MS; patch clamp analysis; voltage-gated ion channel; DRG neuron Selenocosmia jiafu; spider venom; RP-HPLC; MALDI-TOF-MS; patch clamp analysis; voltage-gated ion channel; DRG neuron
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Hu, Z.; Zhou, X.; Chen, J.; Tang, C.; Xiao, Z.; Ying, D.; Liu, Z.; Liang, S. The Venom of the Spider Selenocosmia Jiafu Contains Various Neurotoxins Acting on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons. Toxins 2014, 6, 988-1001.

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