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Toxins 2014, 6(2), 539-555; doi:10.3390/toxins6020539

Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8528, Japan
Division of Medical Nutrition, Tokyo Healthcare University Graduate School, 3-11-3, Setagaya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8568, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyprinid fish; gallbladder; bile alcohol; Thin layer chromatography; acute renal failure; acute dysfunction of liver; FAB mass spectrometry; IR spectrometry; NMR spectrometry cyprinid fish; gallbladder; bile alcohol; Thin layer chromatography; acute renal failure; acute dysfunction of liver; FAB mass spectrometry; IR spectrometry; NMR spectrometry

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Asakawa, M.; Noguchi, T. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish. Toxins 2014, 6, 539-555.

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