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Toxins 2014, 6(2), 453-463; doi:10.3390/toxins6020453

Phytotoxicity Evaluation of Type B Trichothecenes Using a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Model System

Applied Microbiology Division, National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannon-dai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan
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Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
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Abstract

Type B trichothecenes, which consist of deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) as the major end products, are produced by phytotoxic fungi, such as the Fusarium species, and pollute arable fields across the world. The DON toxicity has been investigated using various types of cell systems or animal bioassays. The evaluation of NIV toxicity, however, has been relatively restricted because of its lower level compared with DON. In this study, the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii testing system, which has been reported to have adequate NIV sensitivity, was reinvestigated under different mycotoxin concentrations and light conditions. The best concentration of DON and NIV, and their derivatives, for test conditions was found to be 25 ppm (2.5 × 10−2 mg/mL). In all light test conditions, DON, NIV, and fusarenon-X (FusX) indicated significant growth inhibition regardless of whether a light source existed, or under differential wavelength conditions. FusX growth was also influenced by changes in photon flux density. These results suggest that C. reinhardtii is an appropriate evaluation system for type B trichothecenes. View Full-Text
Keywords: type B trichothecene; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; PPFD; LED; toxicity testing type B trichothecene; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; PPFD; LED; toxicity testing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Suzuki, T.; Iwahashi, Y. Phytotoxicity Evaluation of Type B Trichothecenes Using a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Model System. Toxins 2014, 6, 453-463.

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