Next Article in Journal
Triggering of Programmed Erythrocyte Death by Alantolactone
Next Article in Special Issue
Firing the Sting: Chemically Induced Discharge of Cnidae Reveals Novel Proteins and Peptides from Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) Venom
Previous Article in Journal
Indole Alkaloids from Fischerella Inhibit Vertebrate Development in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Model
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3582-3595; doi:10.3390/toxins6123582

Fossilized Venom: The Unusually Conserved Venom Profiles of Heloderma Species (Beaded Lizards and Gila Monsters)

1
Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, the University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
2
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, the University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
3
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, the Alexander Silberman Institute for Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
4
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 17 December 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 5th Venoms to Drugs Meeting)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [739 KB, uploaded 22 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Research into snake venoms has revealed extensive variation at all taxonomic levels. Lizard venoms, however, have received scant research attention in general, and no studies of intraclade variation in lizard venom composition have been attempted to date. Despite their iconic status and proven usefulness in drug design and discovery, highly venomous helodermatid lizards (gila monsters and beaded lizards) have remained neglected by toxinological research. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of three helodermatid lizards in this study has unravelled an unusual similarity in venom-composition, despite the long evolutionary time (~30 million years) separating H. suspectum from the other two species included in this study (H. exasperatum and H. horridum). Moreover, several genes encoding the major helodermatid toxins appeared to be extremely well-conserved under the influence of negative selection (but with these results regarded as preliminary due to the scarcity of available sequences). While the feeding ecologies of all species of helodermatid lizard are broadly similar, there are significant morphological differences between species, which impact upon relative niche occupation. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive evolution; venom; toxin; Heloderma; beaded lizard; gila monster adaptive evolution; venom; toxin; Heloderma; beaded lizard; gila monster
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary materials

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Koludarov, I.; Jackson, T.N.W.; Sunagar, K.; Nouwens, A.; Hendrikx, I.; Fry, B.G. Fossilized Venom: The Unusually Conserved Venom Profiles of Heloderma Species (Beaded Lizards and Gila Monsters). Toxins 2014, 6, 3582-3595.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top