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Toxins 2013, 5(5), 926-938; doi:10.3390/toxins5050926
Article

Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration

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Received: 12 January 2013; in revised form: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Properties of Well-Characterized Toxins)
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Abstract: Bacterial products such as toxins can interfere with a variety of cellular processes, leading to severe human diseases. Clostridium difficile toxins, TcdA and TcdB are the primary contributing factors to the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated diseases (CDAD). While the mechanisms for TcdA and TcdB mediated cellular responses are complex, it has been shown that these toxins can alter chemotactic responses of neutrophils and intestinal epithelial cells leading to innate immune responses and tissue damages. The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not clear and may have potential implications for adaptive immunity. We investigated here the direct and indirect effects of TcdA and TcdB on the migration of human blood T cells using conventional cell migration assays and microfluidic devices. It has been found that, although both toxins decrease T cell motility, only TcdA but not TcdB decreases T cell chemotaxis. Similar effects are observed in T cell migration toward the TcdA- or TcdB-treated human epithelial cells. Our study demonstrated the primary role of TcdA (compared to TcdB) in altering T cell migration and chemotaxis, suggesting possible implications for C. difficile toxin mediated adaptive immune responses in CDAD.
Keywords: C. difficile toxin A and B; human T lymphocyte; cell migration; chemotaxis; microfluidic device C. difficile toxin A and B; human T lymphocyte; cell migration; chemotaxis; microfluidic device
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, D.; Joyee, A.G.; Nandagopal, S.; Lopez, M.; Ma, X.; Berry, J.; Lin, F. Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration. Toxins 2013, 5, 926-938.

AMA Style

Wu D, Joyee AG, Nandagopal S, Lopez M, Ma X, Berry J, Lin F. Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration. Toxins. 2013; 5(5):926-938.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Dan; Joyee, Antony G.; Nandagopal, Saravanan; Lopez, Marianela; Ma, Xiuli; Berry, Jody; Lin, Francis. 2013. "Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration." Toxins 5, no. 5: 926-938.


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