Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
Cangene Corporation, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0T5, Canada
Department of Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada
BD Biosciences, La Jolla, CA 92121, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 January 2013; in revised form: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Abstract: Bacterial products such as toxins can interfere with a variety of cellular processes, leading to severe human diseases. Clostridium difficile toxins, TcdA and TcdB are the primary contributing factors to the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated diseases (CDAD). While the mechanisms for TcdA and TcdB mediated cellular responses are complex, it has been shown that these toxins can alter chemotactic responses of neutrophils and intestinal epithelial cells leading to innate immune responses and tissue damages. The effects of C. difficile toxins on the migration and trafficking of other leukocyte subsets, such as T lymphocytes, are not clear and may have potential implications for adaptive immunity. We investigated here the direct and indirect effects of TcdA and TcdB on the migration of human blood T cells using conventional cell migration assays and microfluidic devices. It has been found that, although both toxins decrease T cell motility, only TcdA but not TcdB decreases T cell chemotaxis. Similar effects are observed in T cell migration toward the TcdA- or TcdB-treated human epithelial cells. Our study demonstrated the primary role of TcdA (compared to TcdB) in altering T cell migration and chemotaxis, suggesting possible implications for C. difficile toxin mediated adaptive immune responses in CDAD.
Keywords: C. difficile toxin A and B; human T lymphocyte; cell migration; chemotaxis; microfluidic device
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Wu, D.; Joyee, A.G.; Nandagopal, S.; Lopez, M.; Ma, X.; Berry, J.; Lin, F. Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration. Toxins 2013, 5, 926-938.
Wu D, Joyee AG, Nandagopal S, Lopez M, Ma X, Berry J, Lin F. Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration. Toxins. 2013; 5(5):926-938.
Wu, Dan; Joyee, Antony G.; Nandagopal, Saravanan; Lopez, Marianela; Ma, Xiuli; Berry, Jody; Lin, Francis. 2013. "Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration." Toxins 5, no. 5: 926-938.