Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Effects of Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B on Human T Lymphocyte Migration
Previous Article in Journal
Structure, Function, and Biology of the Enterococcus faecalis Cytolysin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Review of the Inhibition of Biological Activities of Food-Related Selected Toxins by Natural Compounds
Toxins 2013, 5(5), 912-925; doi:10.3390/toxins5050912
Review

The Toxicological Impacts of the Fusarium Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol, in Poultry Flocks with Special Reference to Immunotoxicity

1
, 2,3
, 2
 and 4,*
Received: 18 February 2013; in revised form: 19 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Properties of Well-Characterized Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [216 KB, uploaded 29 April 2013]   |   Browse Figure
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common Fusarium toxin in poultry feed. Chickens are more resistant to the adverse impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) compared to other species. In general, the acute form of DON mycotoxicosis rarely occurs in poultry flocks under normal conditions. However, if diets contain low levels of DON (less than 5 mg DON/kg diet), lower productivity, impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infectious diseases can occur. The molecular mechanism of action of DON has not been completely understood. A significant influence of DON in chickens is the impairment of immunological functions. It was known that low doses of DON elevated the serum IgA levels and affected both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in animals. DON is shown to suppress the antibody response to infectious bronchitis vaccine (IBV) and to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in broilers (10 mg DON/kg feed) and laying hens (3.5 to 14 mg of DON/kg feed), respectively. Moreover, DON (10 mg DON/kg feed) decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the plasma of broilers. DON can severely affect the immune system and, due to its negative impact on performance and productivity, can eventually result in high economic losses to poultry producers. The present review highlights the impacts of DON intoxication on cell mediated immunity, humoral immunity, gut immunity, immune organs and pro-inflammatory cytokines in chickens.
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; Fusarium mycotoxin; immune responses; gut immunity; cytokines; poultry deoxynivalenol; Fusarium mycotoxin; immune responses; gut immunity; cytokines; poultry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Awad, W.; Ghareeb, K.; Böhm, J.; Zentek, J. The Toxicological Impacts of the Fusarium Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol, in Poultry Flocks with Special Reference to Immunotoxicity. Toxins 2013, 5, 912-925.

AMA Style

Awad W, Ghareeb K, Böhm J, Zentek J. The Toxicological Impacts of the Fusarium Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol, in Poultry Flocks with Special Reference to Immunotoxicity. Toxins. 2013; 5(5):912-925.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Awad, Wageha; Ghareeb, Khaled; Böhm, Josef; Zentek, Jürgen. 2013. "The Toxicological Impacts of the Fusarium Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol, in Poultry Flocks with Special Reference to Immunotoxicity." Toxins 5, no. 5: 912-925.


Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert