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Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2270-2280; doi:10.3390/toxins5112270
Review

Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis

1
 and 2,*
Received: 1 October 2013; in revised form: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 18 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factors)
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Abstract: E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal meningitis, and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Recent reports of E. coli meningitis caused by antimicrobial resistant strains are a particular concern. These findings indicate that a novel strategy is needed to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is a bacterial virulence factor associated principally with E. coli strains causing urinary tract infection and meningitis. We have shown that CNF1 contributes to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier and penetration into the brain, the essential step in the development of E. coli meningitis, and identified the host receptor for CNF1, 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP). CNF1, however, is a cytoplasmic protein and its contribution to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier requires its secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm. No signal peptide is found in the CNF1 sequence. CNF1 secretion is, therefore, a strategy utilized by meningitis-causing E. coli to invade the blood-brain barrier. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in CNF1 secretion, as shown in this report with the involvement of Fdx and YgfZ provides the novel information on potential targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis by virtue of targeting the secretion of CNF1.
Keywords: E. coli meningitis; CNF1; RhoGTPases; 37LRP; CNF1 secretion E. coli meningitis; CNF1; RhoGTPases; 37LRP; CNF1 secretion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, M.-H.; Kim, K.S. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis. Toxins 2013, 5, 2270-2280.

AMA Style

Wang M-H, Kim KS. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis. Toxins. 2013; 5(11):2270-2280.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Ming-Hsien; Kim, Kwang S. 2013. "Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli Meningitis." Toxins 5, no. 11: 2270-2280.



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