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Nodularin Exposure Induces SOD1 Phosphorylation and Disrupts SOD1 Co-localization with Actin Filaments
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen N-5020, Norway
Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK
Proteomics Unit at University of Bergen, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen N-5020, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2012; in revised form: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Abstract: Apoptotic cell death is induced in primary hepatocytes by the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase inhibiting cyanobacterial toxin nodularin after only minutes of exposure. Nodularin-induced apoptosis involves a rapid development of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be delayed by the Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II inhibitor KN93. This apoptosis model provides us with a unique population of highly synchronized dying cells, making it possible to identify low abundant phosphoproteins participating in apoptosis signaling. Here, we show that nodularin induces phosphorylation and possibly also cysteine oxidation of the antioxidant Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), without altering enzymatic SOD1 activity. The observed post-translational modifications of SOD1 could be regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II. In untreated hepatocytes, a high concentration of SOD1 was found in the sub-membranous area, co-localized with the cortical actin cytoskeleton. In the early phase of nodularin exposure, SOD1 was found in high concentration in evenly distributed apoptotic buds. Nodularin induced a rapid reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and, at the time of polarized budding, SOD1 and actin filaments no longer co-localized.
Keywords: nodularin; apoptosis; SOD1; phosphorylation; actin; ROS
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Hjørnevik, L.V.; Fismen, L.; Young, F.M.; Solstad, T.; Fladmark, K.E. Nodularin Exposure Induces SOD1 Phosphorylation and Disrupts SOD1 Co-localization with Actin Filaments. Toxins 2012, 4, 1482-1499.
Hjørnevik LV, Fismen L, Young FM, Solstad T, Fladmark KE. Nodularin Exposure Induces SOD1 Phosphorylation and Disrupts SOD1 Co-localization with Actin Filaments. Toxins. 2012; 4(12):1482-1499.
Hjørnevik, Linda V.; Fismen, Lise; Young, Fiona M.; Solstad, Therese; Fladmark, Kari E. 2012. "Nodularin Exposure Induces SOD1 Phosphorylation and Disrupts SOD1 Co-localization with Actin Filaments." Toxins 4, no. 12: 1482-1499.