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Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 24 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 20 November 2012
Abstract: The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.
Keywords: dystonia; blepharospasm; Meige syndrome; writer’s cramp; botulinum toxin; physiology
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MDPI and ACS Style
Karp, B.I. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia. Toxins 2012, 4, 1404-1414.
Karp BI. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia. Toxins. 2012; 4(11):1404-1414.
Karp, Barbara I. 2012. "Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia." Toxins 4, no. 11: 1404-1414.