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Do Only Small Uremic Toxins, Chromophores, Contribute to the Online Dialysis Dose Monitoring by UV Absorbance?
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technomedicum, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
Department of Nephrology UHL, County Council of Östergötland, Department of Medical Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2012; in revised form: 25 September 2012 / Accepted: 27 September 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the contributions of the main chromophores to the total UV absorbance of the spent dialysate and to assess removal dynamics of these solutes during optical on-line dialysis dose monitoring. High performance chromatography was used to separate and quantify UV-absorbing solutes in the spent dialysate sampled at the start and at the end of dialysis sessions. Chromatograms were monitored at 210, 254 and 280 nm routinely and full absorption spectra were registered between 200 and 400 nm. Nearly 95% of UV absorbance originates from solutes with high removal ratio, such as uric acid. The contributions of different solute groups vary at different wavelengths and there are dynamical changes in contributions during the single dialysis session. However, large standard deviation of the average contribution values within a series of sessions indicates remarkable differences between individual treatments. A noteworthy contribution of Paracetamol and its metabolites to the total UV absorbance was determined at all three wavelengths. Contribution of slowly dialyzed uremic solutes, such as indoxyl sulfate, was negligible.
Keywords: uremic toxins; hemodialysis; chromophores; retention solutes; absorption; ultraviolet-radiation; liquid-chromatography; dialysis dose; monitoring; spent dialysate
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MDPI and ACS Style
Arund, J.; Tanner, R.; Uhlin, F.; Fridolin, I. Do Only Small Uremic Toxins, Chromophores, Contribute to the Online Dialysis Dose Monitoring by UV Absorbance? Toxins 2012, 4, 849-861.
Arund J, Tanner R, Uhlin F, Fridolin I. Do Only Small Uremic Toxins, Chromophores, Contribute to the Online Dialysis Dose Monitoring by UV Absorbance? Toxins. 2012; 4(10):849-861.
Arund, Jürgen; Tanner, Risto; Uhlin, Fredrik; Fridolin, Ivo. 2012. "Do Only Small Uremic Toxins, Chromophores, Contribute to the Online Dialysis Dose Monitoring by UV Absorbance?" Toxins 4, no. 10: 849-861.