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Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies
INSERM ERI-12 (EA 4292), Amiens 80000, France
Clinical Research Centre-Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens 80000, France
The Jules Verne University of Picardy, Amiens 80000, France
Division of Nephrology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens 80000, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 April 2011; in revised form: 28 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Abstract: The uremic syndrome is attributed to the progressive retention of a large number of compounds which, under normal conditions, are excreted by healthy kidneys. The compounds are called uremic toxins when they interact negatively with biological functions. The present review focuses on a specific class of molecules, namely the family of protein-bound uremic toxins. Recent experimental studies have shown that protein-bound toxins are involved not only in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but also in the generation and aggravation of cardiovascular disease. Two protein-bound uremic retention solutes, namely indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, have been shown to play a prominent role. However, although these two molecules belong to the same class of molecules, exert toxic effects on the cardiovascular system in experimental animals, and accumulate in the serum of patients with CKD they may have different clinical impacts in terms of cardiovascular disease and other complications. The principal aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate retention on CKD patient outcomes, based on recent clinical studies.
Keywords: uremic toxins; chronic kidney disease; clinical studies; indoxyl sulfate; p-cresyl sulfate
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Liabeuf, S.; Drüeke, T.B.; Massy, Z.A. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies. Toxins 2011, 3, 911-919.
Liabeuf S, Drüeke TB, Massy ZA. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies. Toxins. 2011; 3(7):911-919.
Liabeuf, Sophie; Drüeke, Tilman B.; Massy, Ziad A. 2011. "Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies." Toxins 3, no. 7: 911-919.