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Toxins 2011, 3(7), 911-919; doi:10.3390/toxins3070911

Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies

, 1
 and 1,2,3,4,*
Received: 29 April 2011 / Revised: 28 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremic Toxins)
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Abstract: The uremic syndrome is attributed to the progressive retention of a large number of compounds which, under normal conditions, are excreted by healthy kidneys. The compounds are called uremic toxins when they interact negatively with biological functions. The present review focuses on a specific class of molecules, namely the family of protein-bound uremic toxins. Recent experimental studies have shown that protein-bound toxins are involved not only in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but also in the generation and aggravation of cardiovascular disease. Two protein-bound uremic retention solutes, namely indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, have been shown to play a prominent role. However, although these two molecules belong to the same class of molecules, exert toxic effects on the cardiovascular system in experimental animals, and accumulate in the serum of patients with CKD they may have different clinical impacts in terms of cardiovascular disease and other complications. The principal aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate retention on CKD patient outcomes, based on recent clinical studies.
Keywords: uremic toxins; chronic kidney disease; clinical studies; indoxyl sulfate; p-cresyl sulfate uremic toxins; chronic kidney disease; clinical studies; indoxyl sulfate;  p-cresyl sulfate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liabeuf, S.; Drüeke, T.B.; Massy, Z.A. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies. Toxins 2011, 3, 911-919.

AMA Style

Liabeuf S, Drüeke TB, Massy ZA. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies. Toxins. 2011; 3(7):911-919.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liabeuf, Sophie; Drüeke, Tilman B.; Massy, Ziad A. 2011. "Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies." Toxins 3, no. 7: 911-919.

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