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Imaging of Convection Enhanced Delivery of Toxins in Humans
Division of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3807, Durham, NC 27710, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2011; in revised form: 14 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Abstract: Drug delivery of immunotoxins to brain tumors circumventing the blood brain barrier is a significant challenge. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) circumvents the blood brain barrier through direct intracerebral application using a hydrostatic pressure gradient to percolate therapeutic compounds throughout the interstitial spaces of infiltrated brain and tumors. The efficacy of CED is determined through the distribution of the therapeutic agent to the targeted region. The vast majority of patients fail to receive a significant amount of coverage of the area at risk for tumor recurrence. Understanding this challenge, it is surprising that so little work has been done to monitor the delivery of therapeutic agents using this novel approach. Here we present a review of imaging in convection enhanced delivery monitoring of toxins in humans, and discuss future challenges in the field.
Keywords: convection enhanced delivery; glioblastoma; drug delivery; imaging
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Mehta, A.I.; Choi, B.D.; Raghavan, R.; Brady, M.; Friedman, A.H.; Bigner, D.D.; Pastan, I.; Sampson, J.H. Imaging of Convection Enhanced Delivery of Toxins in Humans. Toxins 2011, 3, 201-206.
Mehta AI, Choi BD, Raghavan R, Brady M, Friedman AH, Bigner DD, Pastan I, Sampson JH. Imaging of Convection Enhanced Delivery of Toxins in Humans. Toxins. 2011; 3(3):201-206.
Mehta, Ankit I.; Choi, Bryan D.; Raghavan, Raghu; Brady, Martin; Friedman, Allan H.; Bigner, Darell D.; Pastan, Ira; Sampson, John H. 2011. "Imaging of Convection Enhanced Delivery of Toxins in Humans." Toxins 3, no. 3: 201-206.