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Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression
Toxins 2011, 3(3), 201-206; doi:10.3390/toxins3030201

Imaging of Convection Enhanced Delivery of Toxins in Humans

Division of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3807, Durham, NC 27710, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2011 / Revised: 14 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotoxins)
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Drug delivery of immunotoxins to brain tumors circumventing the blood brain barrier is a significant challenge. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) circumvents the blood brain barrier through direct intracerebral application using a hydrostatic pressure gradient to percolate therapeutic compounds throughout the interstitial spaces of infiltrated brain and tumors. The efficacy of CED is determined through the distribution of the therapeutic agent to the targeted region. The vast majority of patients fail to receive a significant amount of coverage of the area at risk for tumor recurrence. Understanding this challenge, it is surprising that so little work has been done to monitor the delivery of therapeutic agents using this novel approach. Here we present a review of imaging in convection enhanced delivery monitoring of toxins in humans, and discuss future challenges in the field.
Keywords: convection enhanced delivery; glioblastoma; drug delivery; imaging convection enhanced delivery; glioblastoma; drug delivery; imaging
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mehta, A.I.; Choi, B.D.; Raghavan, R.; Brady, M.; Friedman, A.H.; Bigner, D.D.; Pastan, I.; Sampson, J.H. Imaging of Convection Enhanced Delivery of Toxins in Humans. Toxins 2011, 3, 201-206.

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