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Toxins 2010, 2(8), 2158-2176; doi:10.3390/toxins2082158

Different Types of Cell Death Induced by Enterotoxins

1
Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
4
Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
5
Department of Emergency, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan 701, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2010 / Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 11 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
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Abstract

The infection of bacterial organisms generally causes cell death to facilitate microbial invasion and immune escape, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In addition to the intercellular infectious processes, pathogen-produced/secreted enterotoxins (mostly exotoxins) are the major weapons that kill host cells and cause diseases by inducing different types of cell death, particularly apoptosis and necrosis. Blocking these enterotoxins with synthetic drugs and vaccines is important for treating patients with infectious diseases. Studies of enterotoxin-induced apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms have helped us to create efficient strategies to use against these well-characterized cytopathic toxins. In this article, we review the induction of the different types of cell death from various bacterial enterotoxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli, Shiga toxins, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, heat-labile enterotoxins, and the cholera toxin, Vibrio cholerae. In addition, necrosis caused by pore-forming toxins, apoptotic signaling through cross-talk pathways involving mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and lysosomal injury is discussed.
Keywords: apoptosis; necrosis; enterotoxin; exotoxin; pore-forming toxin; staphylococcal enterotoxin B; staphylococcal alpha-toxin; Panton-Valentine leukocidin; alpha-hemolysin; Shiga toxin; cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1; heat-labile enterotoxin; cholera toxin apoptosis; necrosis; enterotoxin; exotoxin; pore-forming toxin; staphylococcal enterotoxin B; staphylococcal alpha-toxin; Panton-Valentine leukocidin; alpha-hemolysin; Shiga toxin; cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1; heat-labile enterotoxin; cholera toxin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.-F.; Chen, C.-L.; Huang, W.-C.; Cheng, Y.-L.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Wang, C.-Y.; Hong, M.-Y. Different Types of Cell Death Induced by Enterotoxins. Toxins 2010, 2, 2158-2176.

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