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Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins
Department of Pathology, Stanford School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
Received: 31 March 2010; in revised form: 28 April 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 6 May 2010
Abstract: Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD) in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX) and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins.
Keywords: cysteine protease domain (CPD); MARTX toxin; glucosylating toxin (GT); inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6); glucosyltransferase (Glc); structure activity relationship (SAR)
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Shen, A. Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins. Toxins 2010, 2, 963-977.
Shen A. Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins. Toxins. 2010; 2(5):963-977.
Shen, Aimee. 2010. "Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins." Toxins 2, no. 5: 963-977.