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Toxins 2010, 2(3), 310-325; doi:10.3390/toxins2030310
Review

Cholera Toxin: An Intracellular Journey into the Cytosol by Way of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

1
, 1
, 1
 and 1,2,*
Received: 27 January 2010; in revised form: 27 February 2010 / Accepted: 2 March 2010 / Published: 5 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [333 KB, uploaded 5 March 2010]
Abstract: Cholera toxin (CT), an AB5-subunit toxin, enters host cells by binding the ganglioside GM1 at the plasma membrane (PM) and travels retrograde through the trans-Golgi Network into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the ER, a portion of CT, the enzymatic A1-chain, is unfolded by protein disulfide isomerase and retro-translocated to the cytosol by hijacking components of the ER associated degradation pathway for misfolded proteins. After crossing the ER membrane, the A1-chain refolds in the cytosol and escapes rapid degradation by the proteasome to induce disease by ADP-ribosylating the large G-protein Gs and activating adenylyl cyclase. Here, we review the mechanisms of toxin trafficking by GM1 and retro-translocation of the A1-chain to the cytosol.
Keywords: cholera toxin; retro-translocation; ERAD; retrograde pathway; lipid rafts cholera toxin; retro-translocation; ERAD; retrograde pathway; lipid rafts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wernick, N.L.B.; Chinnapen, D.-F.; Cho, J.A.; Lencer, W.I. Cholera Toxin: An Intracellular Journey into the Cytosol by Way of the Endoplasmic Reticulum. Toxins 2010, 2, 310-325.

AMA Style

Wernick NLB, Chinnapen D-F, Cho JA, Lencer WI. Cholera Toxin: An Intracellular Journey into the Cytosol by Way of the Endoplasmic Reticulum. Toxins. 2010; 2(3):310-325.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wernick, Naomi L. B.; Chinnapen, Daniel J.-F.; Cho, Jin Ah; Lencer, Wayne I. 2010. "Cholera Toxin: An Intracellular Journey into the Cytosol by Way of the Endoplasmic Reticulum." Toxins 2, no. 3: 310-325.



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