Next Article in Journal
Lipopolysaccharide Structural Differences between Western and Asian Helicobacter pylori Strains
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Adsorbent Magnetic Graphene Oxide Modified with Chitosan for the Simultaneous Reduction of Mycotoxins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Dose-Response Modelling of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Humans
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(9), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090362

Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Invertebrate Vectors from North Atlantic Waters (Azores, Madeira, and Morocco)

1
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4619-007 Porto, Portugal
2
Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research-CIMAR/CIIMAR, University of Porto, Novo Edificio do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, 4450-208 S/N Matosinhos, Portugal
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Science Faculty, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
4
Life Sciences Faculty, Madeira University, Marine Biology Station, 9000-107 Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal
5
Center of Interdisciplinary Marine and Environmental Research of Madeira-CIIMAR-Madeira, Edificio Madeira Tecnopolo, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal
6
cE3c/GBA—Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group and Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Azores, Portugal
7
Phycology Research Unit-Biotechnology, Ecosystems Ecology and Valorization Laboratory, Science Faculty, University of Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida BP20, Morocco
8
Department of Pharmacology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
This authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paralytic Shellfish Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1327 KB, uploaded 6 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent alkaloids of microalgal and cyanobacterial origin, with worldwide distribution. Over the last 20 years, the number of poisoning incidents has declined as a result of the implementation of legislation and monitoring programs based on bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 98 samples from 23 different species belonging to benthic and subtidal organisms, such as echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves, and gastropods. The sampling locations were Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago), and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed using post-column oxidation liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detection method. Our main goal was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. After reporting a total of 59 positive results for PSTs with 14 new vectors identified, we verified that some of the amounts exceeded the limit value established in the EU. These results suggest that routine monitoring of saxitoxin and its analogs should be extended to more potential vectors other than bivalves, including other edible organisms, for a better protection of public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: paralytic shellfish toxins; new vectors; post-column oxidation liquid chromatography; Madeira island; São Miguel island; Morocco paralytic shellfish toxins; new vectors; post-column oxidation liquid chromatography; Madeira island; São Miguel island; Morocco
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, M.; Rey, V.; Barreiro, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Neto, A.I.; Hassouani, M.; Sabour, B.; Botana, A.; Botana, L.M.; Vasconcelos, V. Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Invertebrate Vectors from North Atlantic Waters (Azores, Madeira, and Morocco). Toxins 2018, 10, 362.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top