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Toxins 2018, 10(8), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10080318

Histopathological Evaluation of the Exposure by Cyanobacteria Cultive Containing [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR on Lithobates catesbeianus Tadpoles

1
Toxinology Laboratory, Depto. Physiological Sciences, Institute of Biology, University of Brasilia, Brasilia 70910-900, Brazil
2
Depto. Genetics and Morphology, Institute of Biology, University of Brasilia, Brasilia 70910-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges)
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Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR variant by the exposure of Lithobates catesbeianus tadpole to unialgal culture Microcystis aeruginosa NPLJ-4 strain. The Tadpole was placed in aquariums and exposed to Microcystis aeruginosa culture or disrupted cells. For 16 days, 5 individuals were removed every 2 days, and tissue samples of liver, skeletal muscle, and intestinal tract were collected for histopathology and bioaccumulation analyses. After exposure, those surviving tadpoles were placed in clean water for 15 days to evaluate their recovery. A control without algae and toxins was maintained in the same conditions and exhibited normal histology and no tissue damage. In exposed tadpoles, samples were characterized by serious damages that similarly affected the different organs, such as loss of adhesion between cells, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, and hemorrhage. Samples showed signs of recovery but severe damages were still observed. Neither HPLC-PDA nor mass spectrometry analysis showed any evidence of free Microcystins bioaccumulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR; Lithobates catesbeianus; tadpoles; exposure; Histopathological evaluation [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR; Lithobates catesbeianus; tadpoles; exposure; Histopathological evaluation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Rodrigues Pires Júnior, O.; de Oliveira, N.B.; Bosque, R.J.; Nice Ferreira, M.F.; Morais Aurélio da Silva, V.; Martins Magalhães, A.C.; Correia de Santana, C.J.; de Souza Castro, M. Histopathological Evaluation of the Exposure by Cyanobacteria Cultive Containing [d-Leu1]Microcystin-LR on Lithobates catesbeianus Tadpoles. Toxins 2018, 10, 318.

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