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Toxins 2018, 10(7), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070273

Effect of Suspended Particulate Matter on the Accumulation of Dissolved Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins by Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) under Laboratory Conditions

1
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
2
Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts)
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Abstract

In recent years, detection of trace amounts of dissolved lipophilic phycotoxins in coastal waters has been possible using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers. To explore the contribution of dissolved diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) to the accumulation of toxins by cultivated bivalves, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to different concentrations of purified okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) in filtered (0.45 µm) seawater for 96 h. Accumulation and esterification of DST by mussels under different experimental conditions, including with and without the addition of the food microalga Isochrysis galbana, and with the addition of different size-fractions of suspended particulate matter (SPM) (<75 µm, 75–150 µm, 150–250 µm) were compared. Results showed that mussels accumulated similar amounts of OA and DTX1 from seawater with or without food microalgae present, and slightly lower amounts when SPM particles were added. Mussels preferentially accumulated OA over DTX1 in all treatments. The efficiency of the mussel’s accumulation of OA and DTX1 from seawater spiked with low concentrations of toxins was higher than that in seawater with high toxin levels. A large proportion of OA (86–94%) and DTX1 (65–82%) was esterified to DTX3 by mussels in all treatments. The proportion of I. galbana cells cleared by mussels was markedly inhibited by dissolved OA and DTX1 (OA 9.2 µg L−1, DTX1 13.2 µg L−1) in seawater. Distribution of total OA and DTX1 accumulated in the mussel tissues ranked in all treatments as follows: digestive gland > gills > mantle > residual tissues. However, the percentage of total DST in the digestive gland of mussels in filtered seawater (67%) was higher than with the addition of SPM particles (75–150 µm) (51%), whereas the gills showed the opposite trend in filtered seawater with (27%) and without (14.4%) SPM particles. Results presented here will improve our understanding of the mechanisms of DST accumulation by bivalves in marine aquaculture environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST); Mytilus galloprovincialis; DST accumulation; DST esterification; suspended particulate matter (SPM) diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST); Mytilus galloprovincialis; DST accumulation; DST esterification; suspended particulate matter (SPM)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Li, A.; Li, M.; Qiu, J.; Song, J.; Ji, Y.; Hu, Y.; Wang, S.; Che, Y. Effect of Suspended Particulate Matter on the Accumulation of Dissolved Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins by Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) under Laboratory Conditions. Toxins 2018, 10, 273.

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